The Dean System Drive is a self-contained propulsion system not requiring the loss of mass.

Advanced Inertial Navigation- The AIRS FLIMBAL

Written By: admin - Sep• 28•10

Advanced Inertial Reference Sphere

Based on the Book:

Inventing Accuracy: An Historical Sociology of Nuclear Missile Guidance, by Donal Mackenzie; MIT, 1990.

Last updated 22 October 1997

The AIRS (Advanced Inertial Reference Sphere) is the most accurate inertial navigation (INS) system ever developed, and perhaps marks the end of a long process of continuous refinement of INS technology.

This immensely complex and expensive INS unit has “third generation” accuracy as defined by Dr. Charles Stark Draper, the leading force in the development of hyper-accurate inertial guidance. This translates into INS drift rates of less than 1.5 x 10^-5 degrees per hour of operation. This drift rate is so low that the AIRS contributes on the order of only 1% of the Peacekeeper missile’s inaccuracy, and is thus effectively a perfect guidance system (i.e. a zero drift rate would not measurably improve the Peacekeeper’s performance).

Very little of the precision of this guidance system is even exploited during a ballistic missile flight, it is mostly used simply to maintain guidance system alignment on the ground during missile alert without needing an external reference through precision gyrocompassing. Most ICBMs require an external alignment system to keep the INS in synch with the outside world prior to launch. The AIRS is probably as good as any INS for ICBM guidance needs to get.

The penalty for this extreme level of accuracy is tremendous complexity and cost. The AIRS has 19,000 parts. In 1989 a single accelerometer used in the AIRS (there are three) cost $300,000 and took six months to manufacture.

There are very few applications requiring both such precise guidance and independence from external references. In fact, beyond ICBM guidance, none have been identified. If the requirement for complete autonomy is eliminated, extreme guidance accuracy is available at a small fraction of its cost and weight. For example, the advent of satellite positioning systems like GPS (Global Positioning System) and GLONASS, which permit centimeter level accuracy over unlimited periods of operation with only a light inexpensive receiver. NASA spcecraft require extreme guidance precision, but use external navigation cues to obtain it. Even new nuclear weapon guidance programs have shown a willingness to sacrifice autonomy for cost and weight. The proposed BIOS (Bomb Impact Optimization System), a glide-bomb adaptation of the B-61, has proposed using GPS for guidance instead of an INS. Given the competition from advanced external reference based approaches, INS technology has probably reached the end of the line as far as accuracy goes.


The MX (later Peacekeeper) missile began development in February 1972. The military requirements for this missile called for greatly enhanced accuracy, accuracy the AIRS was well positioned to deliver. In May 1975 the AIRS was transferred from the Draper Laboratory to Northrop for advanced development. It proved extremely difficult to transfer the hand-crafted laboratory built design to a production environment. Despite years of work, by July 1987 Northrop Electronics Division had succeeded in delivering only a small number of INS units. MX missiles were beginning to pile up in silos with no guidance system to fly them. By December 1988 AIRS units had been supplied to all 50 MX missiles. Since that time reponsibility for producing AIRS units has been transferred to the Autonetics Division, Rockwell International.

With the planned retirement of the Peacekeeper missile under the terms of the START II treaty (signed 3 January 1993) by 2004, the Minuteman III will be left as the sole U.S. land-based ICBM through the year 2020. Because of this shift in importance, the Minuteman III force is to be upgraded to the same standards of accuracy of the Peacekeeper. Accordingly, between 1998 and 2002, 652 new AIRS guidance units will be purchased and fitted to the existing Minuteman III.


The most novel aspect of the AIRS is that it has no gimbals. Gimbals are pivots that are provided for each of three spatial axes so that the guidance platform can move freely in all directions (and thus maintain its absolute alignment with the outside world). The AIRS consists of a beryllium sphere that floats in a fluorocarbon fluid within an outer shell and can thus rotate in any direction. The importance of this innovation is that it eliminates the possibility of gimbal lock (where the axes of two gimbals line up and destroy the three-dimensional freedom of motion), and is free from arbitrary limits to range of motion found in some gimbal designs.

The temperature of the fluid is controlled with extreme accuracy by transfer of heat from the fluid through “Power shells” to freon-cooled heat exchangers. The alignment of the sphere is controlled by three hydraulic thrust valves directed by the inertial sensors in the sphere.

Like other INS systems, the sphere houses three accelerometers and three gyroscopes. The accelerometer design is called a SFIR (specific force integrating reciever). This is essentially the same approach as the pendulous integrating gyro accelerometer (of PIGA) used in the Minuteman II. The SFIR/PIGA works by measuring the rate of precession (and thus force applied) to a gyroscope at right angles to its axis of rotation. The gyroscope is a floated gas bearing gyroscope design.

AIRS opened to show a gyroscope and accelerometer

AIRS being disassembled

Exploded view of system enclosing the AIRS


The AIRS was in large part an evolutionary development of INS technology. The principle measuring instruments (the accelerometers and gyroscopes) are direct descendants of technologies used in earlier ICBM INS systems like the Minuteman II. These technologies were developed over a period 30 years by the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (formerly the Instrumentation Laboratory of MIT).

The gimballess floated sphere was conceived at the Instrumentation Laboratory in the late 50s by Philip Bowditch, who dubbed the concept the “flimbal”. It was developed into a deployable system by Kenneth Fertig, under an Air Force program known as SABRE. In 1969 the highly accurate ICBM guidance program was eliminated, but resurrected as the MPMS (missile position measurement system). In this guise it was test flown riding “piggy back” on an Minuteman III in 1976 (i.e. in addition to the actual Minuteman III NS-20 guidance system). The AIRS was so accurate that it could be conveniently used as a benchmark for evaluating other INS systems.

Draper Labs at 25 years

Written By: admin - Sep• 28•10

AIRS FLIMBALBy Christopher Morgan
with Joseph O’Connor and David Hoag

Click on the “FLIMBAL” to download a copy of the PDF
– B. Dean Admin


“ History has a joking way of
forgetting the events that make a big
noise …and remembering the events
that are quiet, unnoticed, even
mysterious, in the eyes of
contemporaries . . .
If you want to play the game of
locating such unnoticed yet great
events in our own period, you
might bet on the invention of the
non-precessible gyroscope perfected
by Charles Stark Draper at MIT. ”

Journalist Joseph Alsop
New York Herald Tribune, 1949,

Mr Alsop was never introduced to the real inventor- Norman L. Dean
“The big joke here is Draper took credit for an invention that was not his”

Draper Laboratory’s roots reach back to the late 1920s and early 1930s, when
Charles Stark Draper began teaching aircraft instrumentation at MIT, all the while
dreaming of ways to improve instrument accuracy. He was an accomplished pilot,
and often performed daredevil acrobatics to make a point about the workability of a
theory. The technique underscored the point to his sometimes-startled passengers.

Videos of Remarkable Interest

Written By: admin - Sep• 18•10

Pan-AM First Commercial Flight with Inertial Navigation
Over the North Pole

Eric Laithwaite’s Lecture on Gyroscopes Part 1 (1-7 available at

Apparatus for Gyroscopic Propulsion Explained
Inventor, Kelly Tippett, explains his Apparatus for Gyroscopic Propulsion, U.S. Patent Number 6,705,174.

Anti-Gravity Physics Background Explained
A major theoretical break-through has occurred and I am currently putting together a new video to explain it. It is based on papers and life work published by electrical engineer Frank Znidarsic.

Tesla’s Missing Files

Tesla’s Machine



Welcome to Dean Space Drive.Org

Written By: admin - Sep• 18•10


Norman L. Dean

Norman L Dean

Newton’s third law states that action and reaction are simultaneous.
Dean offered this amplification:

“The effect of action and reaction is not necessarily simultaneous and can be sequential.”
N.L. Dean, 1948

Dean’s amendment to Newton’s Third Law – is called
the phasing phenomenon.”

The primary characteristic of the Dean system is that it is a self-contained propulsion system not requiring the loss of mass.

Energy Creates force. Force moves mass.

As it has been used, force tends to move two masses – the one intended to be moved, and equally, and in the opposite direction, another mass against which the force simultaneously “reacts”. This is the familiar two-directional force effect.

One-directional force moves only the mass to be moved.

In 1959, Dean applied for, and was granted US and foreign Patents on his initial device, US Patent 2,888,976,” System for converting rotary motion into Unidirectional motion” and later in 1965 a follow-up device, “Variable Oscillator System”

Steven M. Hampton- The Dean Space Drive

Written By: admin - Sep• 17•10

Steve Hampton- Drive Researcher

Mr. Hampton’s book:

Dean Drives and Davis Mechanics:
Inertial Propulsion and the Manipulation of time in Symmetrical Systems

Folks, if you want a blow by blow description of the Dean Drive, then this book is for you. Click on the title above for ordering instructions. – Then visit his very informative website:

Click Here to go to Inertial

Patent secrets of inertial propulsion Dean Space Drive Impulse engine loses 70% weight and displaces itself as pendulum with centrifugal force thrust.

The Dean inertial propulsion impulse engine is not amiable to a quick and dirty analysis; it is a dynamic and complex multi-dimensional space drive.

The reaping of centrifugal force from rotary motion for propulsion has stumped us humans for centuries. The paradox, it seems, lay in the way we tend to think about our world at large. In the past, inventors and engineers generally thought in terms of how to make it work by manipulating mechanical matter and energy (preferably electricity). The quest is, and always was, to generate unbalanced impulses from a system that is physically symmetric.

A Dean Drive

Dr. Davis’s theoretical model (circa 1962) of a unidirectional thrust engine or unbalanced oscillator. A = Oscillator, sine wave or saw-tooth – waveform may be critical. B = Long time signal path. C = Short time signal path. D = Clutch, timing is critical. E = Clutch. F = Frame.

Norman Dean’s Patent #2,886,976 of his electro-mechanical inertial drive has intrigued millions for decades, so why hasn’t someone built a flying machine based on its design before now? The problem, as it turned out, was patent rights protection: Dean laid out his art so skillfully that without extensive research, even the most imaginative engineer could not deduce all the variables. For example, what are – and how do you harmonize – the proper shifter timing, clutch timing, stroke length, rotor mass, spring tensions, and the placement of slider switches used to synchronized the carriage with the rotor cycle (a problem when the system runs for more than a few seconds)?

Hampton’s E-8 Machine: 8 Brass Rotors

Hampton E-& Machine

Antigravity ? You decide…

Written By: admin - Sep• 11•10

Fun Watch!

Apparatus for Gyroscopic Propulsion Explained

Written By: admin - Sep• 11•10

Apparatus for Gyroscopic Propulsion Explained

Fascinating Video and Animation-


The Gyroscopic Inertial Thruster

Written By: admin - Sep• 11•10

The Gyroscopic Inertial Thruster

from David Cowlishaw

The GIT V2.0 designed and built by JL Naudin

created on 08-02-98 – JLN Labs last update on 08-16-98

The GIT Drive

The GIT Drive

Technology Demonstrator for Impulse Drive (1935)

Written By: admin - Sep• 11•10

The Impulse Drive

This a fairly simple “motion rectifier” that lends itself to home experimentation. It can probably be built with solenoids manufactured for sprinkler controls and some simple electronics.

Henry Bull demonstrated this in 1935. At that time there was no space program, so its feeble thrust was eclipsed by the alternatives of the day. Today, however, even a feeble thrust, produced continuously over a long period of time, has great significance to the space program, especially since it expends no fuel.

The principle can best be explained by referring to the diagram below. Imagine a tube with a guide rod in its center. Around the guide rod are two toroid shaped masses, heavy iron washers perhaps. A compression spring is placed in the middle between the masses. At only one end of the tube is another spring. The other end has no spring. The actions of the masses are controlled by solenoid coils wrapped around the tube (not shown). (One could probably also construct this by putting the solenoids on the rod and having them serve dual purposes as both motivators and masses).

Pendulum Test – JNL Labs

Written By: admin - Sep• 11•10

One of the definitive test that was developed to test unidirectional force, was the pendulum test. demonstrated here by JNL Labs- Under Davis Mechanics, and Norman L. Deans leadership, this test showed Dean’s drives attained 45′ although when Davis tried and retired, the phasing was not perfected due to the rough mechanical construction of the devices (1950’s) .Excellent Read- Admin

Find it Here–>

Pendulum Test