The Dean System Drive is a self-contained propulsion system not requiring the loss of mass.

Major De Seversky’s Ion-Propelled Aircraft

Written By: admin - May• 19•10




Popular Mechanics (August 1964)

Major De Seversky’s Ion-Propelled Aircraft

by Hans Fantel

An ion-generated wind will lift and propel this incredible magic carpet of the future

It was downright spooky. Without a sound, the peculiar, spiky contraption rose straight up, hovered awhile, climbed higher. Then it did a few graceful turns, stopped again, and just sat there silently in midair.

It seemed like levitation — some trick to overcome gravity. I could not shake off the feeling that I was attending a kind of spiritual seance, or maybe a Buck Rogers show, instead of an engineering demonstration. The eerie scene took place in the big barn like laboratory of Electron-Atom Inc., research firm in Long Island City, New York, devoted to the development of a new kind of flying machine. I had been invited to watch a scale model being put through its paces by remote control. What we saw was by far the oddest aircraft since the Wright Brothers’ motorized kite.

It had no prop. No jet. No wings. In fact, it had no moving parts at all looking somewhat like an old-fashioned bedspring, the rectangular rig is the nearest thing to a magic carpet. It needs no runway, takes off vertically and is expected to climb as high as 60 miles. It can crawl through the air like a snail, or go faster than a jet. Nobody yet knows the speed limit.

After a while, I closed my mouth. But David Yorysh, one of the project engineers, noticed my puzzlement.

“Any questions?” he grinned.

“Yes. What holds it up?”

“Ions,” said Yorysh, as he launched into an explanation of a wholly new flight concept.

The magic carpet, called the Ionocraft, flies on pure electricity. It depends specifically on the fundamental principle of electricity that electric current always flows from negative to positive, and it uses two basic pieces of equipment to take advantage of this principle — tall metal spikes that are installed above an open wire-mesh grid.

High negative voltage is shot from the spikes toward the positively charged wire grid, just like negative and positive poles on an ordinary battery. As the negative charge leaves the spike arms, it peppers the surrounding air like buckshot, putting a negative charge on some of the air particles. Such negatively charged air particles are called ions, and these are attracted downward by the positively charged grid.

“Okay,” I said. “But I still don’t see what holds it up.” “I’m getting to that,” Yorysh assured me as he spelled out the rest of the Ionocraft principle. In their mad rush from the ion emitter to the main grid, the ions bump into neutral air molecules-air particles without electric charge.

The terrific wallop in these collisions hurls a mass of neutral air down-ward along with ions. When they reach that air grid, the ions being negative are trapped by positive charge on the grid. but the grid has no attraction for the neutral air particles that got bumped along. So the air flows right through the open grid mesh, making a downdraft beneath the Ionocraft. The contraption rides on this shaft of air, getting lift just like a helicopter — by sucking air down from the top.

“Aerodynamically, it works just like a chopper,” Yorysh summed it up. “But instead of using a rotor and blades, we create the downward air flow electrically by means of ionic discharge. The ions act on the air like a man treading water. They just push down.”

The engineers working on Ionocraft are the first to admit that their present rig is still a long way from any kind of practical aircraft. The model we saw measures only 1296 square inches and consists of about $5 worth of balsa wood and aluminum wire. But the principle holds an important promise for the future of aviation.

The problem now is improving efficiency — getting enough lift from a given grid area and a given amount of energy, Present models cannot yet lift their own electric generators. they get power through a feeder cable, dangling down like an umbilical cord. Ionocraft engineers tend to be close-mouthed on performance figures.

But they will tell you that at present it takes 90 watts (30,000 volts at 3 milliamperes) to fly a two ounce model. Translated into ordinary power-to-weight ratios, this works out to roughly 0.96 hp. per pound, as compared with a typical 0.1 hp per pound of helicopter or 0.065 hp for a pound Piper Cub.

But Ionocraft designers are hard at work upping efficiency. One possible power — boosting technique is to pulse the power in short high energy bursts rather than apply steady voltage. They are also trying out various grid patterns and ion emitter layouts to minimize energy loss through turbulence in the downdraft.

Despite such unresolved problems, the development crew almost bristles with optimism, and the most optimistic of all is the Ionocraft’s inventor Major Alexander P. de Seversky. No crackpot, Major de Seversky is a practical visionary who in many areas has been far in front of his field.

“We hope to fly a model with self-contained power, perhaps by the end of the year,” he told me, confidently.

“Ultimately, the ionic drive will prove more efficient than either propeller or jet as a method of aircraft propulsion.

“It will achieve lift at less expenditure of energy and fuel than existing form of aircraft. In fact, it will prove the most efficient method of converting electricity into motion.”

Coming from a man of de Seversky’s background, such a statement has an almost prophetic ring. A leading aircraft designer and ace flyer for the past 50 years, de Seversky’s ideas have often been ahead of their time-sometimes to the embarrassment of other aviation experts. Losing his right leg during his first flying mission in World War I didn’t deter him from downing 13 enemy aircraft in later flights. After coming to the United States from Russia, de Seversky developed bombsights and course computers during the 1920s that were the forerunners of today’s inertial guidance systems.

Worked with Billy Mitchell ~

Later he pioneered the design of the cantilever-skin stressed wing that is now in general use. He was consultant to General Billy Mitchell in the historic airplane-versus-battleship tactical experiments of the 1920s, and as a special consultant to the U.S. Chiefs of Staff helped formulate basic air strategy in World War II. He also contributed to the designs of the P-35 and P-43 which led to the development of the P-47 Thunderbolt, one of America’s most effective wartime fighter planes. Now a trim and sprightly man of 70, he still likes to take out experimental jet planes for a spin.

“The idea hit me as I was working on an electric air-cleaning device which I had invented,” the major recalled.

“That gadget was designed to fight air pollution by electrically charging the particles in industrial smoke and then trapping them on a liquid electrode with the opposite charge.”

De Seversky noticed an air flow developing between the two electrodes, caused by ionization process previous explained.

“To an old flyer like me,” said the major, “anything that stirs up a wind is a flying machine. So I began to develop the idea.” The major seemed concerned that the Ionocraft might be mistaken for a kind of space vehicle.

“This is not a spacecraft,” he explained emphatically to forestall any misunderstanding. “It’s an airplane, designed to operate within the atmosphere. But it will be able to do things no present type aircraft can accomplish.”

Pointing out the potential advantage of Ionocraft over conventional planes or helicopters, de Seversky ticks off a whole string of radical notions:

High-altitude flight — Helicopters whirl their blades in utter frustration at altitudes where the air gets thin. Beyond 20,000 feet, they get almost no lift. By contrast, experts calculate that Ionocraft can kick up (rather kick down) enough air to stay aloft at 300,000 feet.

Unlimited size — The bigger it gets the better it flies. Efficiency increases with grid area. Distributing airflow around the grid edge becomes proportionately less important in larger craft. The reason:

Grid area increases faster than circumference with growing size.

“We’ll be able to build them as big as a city block” claimed de Seversky.

High speed — No practical speed limit has been determined. The ions themselves flash from emitter to grid impart to the very high-velocity impulse. Aerodynamic drag would be the chief speed-limiting factor. But, streamlining of the grid edge and careful contouring of the craft, could minimize air drag.

Safety — No moving parts in propulsion and no wear, means less chance of failure, simpler maintenance.

Steering with Voltage ~

Steering control is accomplished by applying different voltages to various parts of the craft. The part with the high voltage gets more lift, hence tilts up. The form of the Ionocraft does not matter. Any shape will fly, but de Seversky assumes that round models in the form of a flying saucer will be the most easily manuverable.

By a simple joystick control, the pilot can lift any edge of the craft, producing pitch and roll as if the Ionocraft had elevators and ailerons. He can put the craft into any flight attitude-noise up or down, or banking to either side. Like the tilt of a helicopter rotor, this inclination pushes the craft forward, rearward, or sideways.

J.F. Bruno, the technical director of de Seversky’s staff, spoke of a passenger gondola in future models, suspended from gimbals below the main grid so that it remains level regardless of how the main deck is tilted. Locations below the main grid also shields passengers from high energy flow. But, even if the passengers somehow got into the ion stream, it wouldn’t electrocute them unless they got “grounded” to the main grid. “It would be just like birds sitting on a wire,” said Yorysh, the man in charge of electronic design.

Until patents for Ionocraft were firmly nailed, de Seversky kept his ideas carefully under raps. That’s another reason no full-scale prototype has yet been built. But even present scale models set the imagination buzzing. Manned craft are envisioned for:

Commuter transport — With no size limit, you can pack trainloads of people into this VTOL craft, relieve traffic congestion around urban centers. The type of craft used as long-distance transport possibly at supersonic speeds- would not need big airports with long run ways.

Airborne traffic monitors — Hovering above bridges and major intersections, or patrolling above highways, one-man Ionocraft would provide a panoramic view of traffic conditions, radio information to ground traffic-control centers.

Grid Is Hard to Hit ~

Military reconnaissance and rescue — Without moving parts, the Ionocraft is less vulnerable to small-arms fire than helicopters. The open grid makes a poor target. Most bullets would whiz right through it. Even if the grid is hit, the electric charge would be maintained despite the damage to some portions. Unlike a copter with shattered blades, the Ionocraft would not crash.

Weather observation — While satellites like Tiros look down on the atmosphere from outer space. Ionocraft could sail right into the weather-making air layers, providing valuable supplemental information. Being steerable, Ionocraft would not drift with the wind like weather balloons, but could hold a position over crucial areas, making local forecasts more reliable.

Skyborne antenna, kept aloft indefinitely in a fixed position by ground based energy supply. Ionocraft could also act as a skyborne antenna, extending the range of defense radar. “It would be like raising the DEW-line 60 miles up into the air,” suggested de Seversky, “adding 15 to 25 minutes warning time against missiles.”

Anti-missile machine — Always alert to military tactics, de Seversky believes that Ionocraft could be used as missile interceptors. Normally the craft would hover at high altitudes, scanning the horizon for a 700-mile range. As soon as it spotted and identified a hostile missile through an infrared detection system, the Ionocraft would hurl itself at the enemy rocket on a collision course and blow it out of the air.

When practical craft are built, their designers expect to have a choice of several power supply systems now under development for NASA’s space program. Some of these include:

Gas-turbine generators — Several firms, notably General Electric and Allis-Chalmers, have come up with compact, light weight, kerosene- fueled turbines, originally intended as power sources for spacecraft. These may be used to generate electricity aboard Ionocraft.

Fuel cells— These are chemical reactors producing electricity like a storage battery, but drawing their chemicals from external supply tanks. NASA is currently testing fuel cells converting hydrogen and oxygen to electricity, with drinking water as a byproduct.

Solar cells directly convert sunlight to electricity-the present energy source of most satellites. When high-efficiency solar cells are available, they may keep Ionocraft aloft for indefinite periods.

Power From Boiling Mercury ~

Sunflower — A code name for another project aimed at deriving electric power directly from sunlight. It employs an umbrella-like reflector that focuses the sun’s heat to boil mercury, which expands through a turbine and drives an electric generator (Solar-power supplies would be back-stopped by other kinds of power generators to take over whenever no sunlight is available.).

Microwave radiation — Concentrated beams of high-frequency radio waves may transfer energy from ground stations to the Ionocraft if the craft is to be used as a hovering platform in a fixed position. Raytheon has pioneered this type of energy transmission through its Amplitron tube and has recaptured as much as 72 percent of the radiated energy at the receiver site. High-power laser beams may be similarly used for transmission.

Experimental hardware has already been produced for each of these off-beat power-supply systems.

None of the men working on the Ionocraft will be pinned down to any production timetable. “It’s a pretty wild project,” admitted technical director Bruno, a veteran 20 years in the missile business. “But that’s what they said when we started working on rockets.”

Major de Seversky, whose own career goes back to the beginnings of aviation, views his invention in historical perspective:

“We are exploring an entirely new principle of flight. We’re just at the spot where the Wright Brothers were in 1903. We are just beginning to see the possibilities.”

Ion-propulsion is produced when negative charge from upright arms charges surrounding air particles into ions. Negatively charged ions rush toward positively charged grid, pushing neutral air particles before them.

Figure 1 ~ Ions rushing towards positively-charged grid collide with neutral air molecules and thrust air downward. Ions stop at grid. Neutral air molecules, whacked downward by ions, pass through mesh of ion-acceptor grid. Downwash keeps Ionocraft aloft.

Figure 2 ~ Major DeSeversky became interested in ion propulsion when he noticed air flow between two electrodes while working on another of his inventions.

Figure 3 ~ Ionocraft model takes to air, completely unsupported except for downwash of air. Next step is to develop a model that can carry its own power supply

Figure 4 ~ Ionocraft Commuter maybe solution for suburbanites of the future in congested areas, speeding hundreds of them short distances over heavy city traffic. Power would be supplied by chain of ground-based master stations.

Figure 5 ~ One-Man Ionocraft could be tomorrow’s traffic patrol car or, in combat, hovering vehicle for guerrilla wars, all but impervious to some minor grid damage.

Figure 6 ~ Anti-missile ionocraft, powered by sunlight, could hover indefinitely in upper atmosphere, then home in on an incoming warhead and blast it out of the sky.

US Patent # 3,130,945(April 28, 1964)


Alexander P. de Seversky, New York, N.Y., assignor to Electronatom Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of New York.

Filed August 31, 1959, Serial Number 837,150
29 Claims. (CI. 24~ 62)

References ~
US Patents ~ 2,495,748 ~ Matson (Jan. 31, 1950 ) ~ 2,503,109 ~ Harris (Apr. 4, 1950) ~ 2,598,064 ~ Lindenblad (May 27, 1952 ) ~ 2,613,887 ~ Woods (Oct. 14, 1952 ) ~ 2,842,645  ~ Dalgleish, et al (July 8, 1958 ) ~ 2,888,189 ~ Herb (May 26. 1959 ) ~ 2,892,949 ~ Hardy (June 30, 1959 ) ~ 2,949,550 ~ Brown (Aug. 16, 1960 )
Foreign Patents ~ 1,174,334 ~ France (Nov. 3, 1958 )

This invention relates to improved heavier-than-air aircraft, and more specifically to structures which are capable of either hovering or moving in any direction at high altitudes by means of ionic discharge.

The present invention is an improvement over well known electrostatic generation of winds used in a novel manner to supply propulsion and sustenance forces for a heavier-than-air aircraft. Crafts of the types heroin disclosed having effective areas of several square feet have been successfully flown and contemplated platforms will inherently be of large size since the lift force is proportionate to the area through which large quantities or masses of air are accelerated downwardly from discharge electrodes to collection electrodes, the latter being a meshed screen, bars, strips or any other structure that provides maximum collecting electrode area with perforations, slots or other types of opening to allow the air to pass through with a minimum of drag. Such a craft will be referred to in this application as an Ionocraft.

Such Ionocraft may serve as platforms which would be stationed above the earth for long periods of tinge and serve other purposes as will be explained below. The output power from microwave generators, such as magnetrons, coupled with high power capacity amplifier tubes may be beamed to the Ionocraft while airborne or the craft may carry its own power supply.

A principal object of the present invention is to provide a novel Ionocraft with space provided by the structure, preferably at the center of the craft, for installation of electronic equipment, and for the power plant, and crew where used.

Another object is to provide a novel Ionocraft construction wherein lightweight reinforcing members are provided to form a structure sufficiently rigid to cope with the dynamic and static loads and to maintain a desired distance between discharge emitting wires and the collecting grid.

Still another object resides in the novel configuration and arrangement of the emitting wires to assure uniform spacing from the collecting grid and to provide a maximum number of ionised particles for producing the desired lift.

A further object is to provide an improved Ionocraft of the foregoing type wherein some structural formation such as dihedral is provided for stabilising the craft during flight. The dihedral may be positive or negative depending upon whether the hovering flight or horizontal motion of aircraft is a primary consideration of performance of the craft. A multiple deck structure may be used where desired to increase the lifting force, and dihedral may be provided in two or more angularly related directions to provide stability in all directions. A conical shape with the apex or nadir at the top or bottom center may also be advantageously used.

Still another object is to provide auxiliary ionic discharge structures mounted for relational movement which are oriented to provide a horizontal propelling force and steering forces which can change the direction of the craft. By mounting such auxiliary structures to turn about a vertical axis, the craft can be made to turn in a horizontal plane about a vertical axis passing through the craft to thereby provide a scanning or target searching apparatus. A similar scanning motion can be achieved by mounting the auxiliary structures to turn about a horizontal axis.

A further object of this invention resides in the provision of a novel stick control using variable electrical impedances for control of the posture and for manoeuvring the craft through variation of the voltage applied to different portions of the craft.

A second principal object of the present invention is to provide a combination Ionocraft and antenna system for radio frequency energy wherein the structure of the Ionocraft is so arranged as to serve in whole or in part as a structure of an efficient electromagnetic antenna system. In accordance with this object of the invention, the device contains one or more antennas that may be used for communication signal transmission, for detection, tracking and/or identification and for eventual destruction through collision of oncoming airborne or space vehicles or missiles and the like. The Ionocraft structure may be used, for example, as the main antenna element, as a series of directing or reflecting elements or as a parasitic element and may be shaped to provide arrays parabolas, corner reflectors, horns or lenses and be adapted to trans-mit a single or complete spectrum of frequencies from the extremely low frequencies to the highest frequencies including infrared.

Another object of this invention is to provide a com-bination antenna-Ionocraft with scanning means for detecting and/or tracking airborne vehicles or missiles. Such combination may also include suitable servo-control and other conventional equipment either on the Ionocraft or at a nearby ground station for causing the Ionocraft to “lock-on” automatically and/or be guided into the path of an “oncoming” vehicle or missile.

A further object is to provide an antenna which constantly locks on a radiation beam, such as a microwave or light beam for example, projected from the ground or from an aircraft in flight to change the position of the Ionocraft in flight.

These and other objects of the invention will become more fully apparent from the claims, and from the specification when read in conjunction with the appended drawings wherein:

FIGURES 1 and 2  are top plan and elevation views of the basic structure of an Ionocraft made in accordance with the present invention; FIGURE 2a is an enlarged pictorial view of a portion of the structure showing how the grid wires are connected to the frame members;

FIGURE 3  is a pictorial view of a modified, form of basic structure;

FIGURE 4 is a view in elevation of an embodiment similar to that shown in FIGURE 3 which is equipped with dihedral;

FIGURE 5  is a schematic view of a craft equipped with dihedral in two perpendicular directions;

FIGURES 6 and 7  are top plan and side elevation views respectively of a further embodiment of the present invention which is equipped with negative dihedral;

FIGURE 8 is a cross section of collecting grid structural members which may be used in lieu of the wire mesh;

FIGURE 9 is a view in elevation of an emitting wire having short wires suspended from the main wire to provide a point source for ion emission;

FIGURE 10  is a diagrammatic view in elevation of an Ionocraft in accordance with this invention;

FIGURES 11 and 12 are top plan views of two embodiments of the Ionocraft having a side elevation view as illustrated in FIGURE 10;

FIGURES 13 and 14 are top plan and elevation views of a further embodiment of this invention;

FIGURE 15  is a schematic diagram of a control circuit for causing the Ionocraft to lock-on and follow a radiation source at a ground station;

FIGURE 16  is a plan view, partly diagrammatic illustrating a control system for the craft of the present invention;

FIGURES 17 and 18 are side elevation views in section of a novel control stick box and assembly to permit steering and guiding of the craft by the system illustrated in FIGURE 16;

FIGURE 19  is a view in elevation of a craft having two vertical grid structure assemblies for controlling horizontal movement;

FIGURES 20 and 21  are side views in elevation of different embodiments each having several horizontal grid structures stacked one on top of the other; and

FIGURE 22 is a diagrammatic view of a gas turbine engine and mounting which are adapted for use with craft of the present invention.

Referring now to the drawings, FIGURES 1 and 2  are plan and elevation views of a typical basic embodiment of my improved Ionocraft 10. The Ionocraft proper comprises a plurality of emitting electrode wires 12 mounted above and in a plan substantially parallel to the collecting electrode grid 14 which may be composed of a meshed screen, bars, strips or any other structure that provides maximum effecting collecting electrode area with perforations, slots or other types of opening to allow the air to pass through with a minimum of drag. A plurality of hollow, lightweight rods or bars of conductive material or crossed wires forming a mesh which is open to pass air downwardly, but with the wires sufficiently closely spaced to effectively neutralise the charged ions which pass from emitting electrode wires 12 are preferred structures. A high D.C. voltage is applied between emitting electrode 12 and collecting electrode 14; one pole of terminal of the high voltage generator is connected to the emitting electrode 12 and the opposite pole or terminal of the same generator is connected to the collecting grid electrode 14, thus creating a high potential field between the electrodes.

In this form of improved Ionocraft, a basic structure sufficiently rigid to cope with the dynamic and static loads and to maintain a desired uniform distance between discharge emitting wires 12 and the collecting grid 14 is utilised comprising an outer square or rectangular frame composed of members 22, 24, 26, and 28. Diagonal frame members 30 and 32 extend between opposite corners of the rectangular frame and a circular frame member 34 is fixed tangentially to the midportions of the frame members. Sid frame members are coplanar and collecting electrode wires 14 are interwoven, as with a loom, to form a closely meshed wire screen and supported from frame members 22, 24, 26, and 28. The ends of each wire are wrapped over and glued to the lower half 26a of the frame member and then cut off as shown in FIGURE 2A. The upper half 26b of the frame member is then secured in position as the glue. A considerable improvement in lifting force was achieved when the frame members and cut ends of the grid wires were covered with an aluminum foil.

Four lightweight rigid structural members, 36 and 38, of which two show in FIGURE 2, are mounted beneath the plane of collecting grid 14 in the vertical planes to diagonal members 30 and 32. Members 36 and 38 meet in a common junction 40 at the center of the Ionocraft. Four perforate lightweight rigid metal sheets or foils 42 and 44 of aluminum or the like, of which only two show in FIGURE 2, are mounted between diagonal members 30, 32, 36 and 38. These foils provide additional stabilisation against tilting by guiding the air flow vertically along the surfaces of the foils and have been found to provide and increase in lift which more than compensates for their weight. Beneath junction 40, a pair of crossed support members 45 and 46 are provided to serve as a landing support to hold the craft with the collecting grid 14 above the ground supporting surface 47 when landed.

The outer ends of emitting wires 12 are supported from masts 48, 49, 50 and 51 of insulating material mounted on opposite sides of the craft. In this embodiment, emitting electrode wires 12 pass diagonally across the craft and cross each other near the center. One terminal of a high voltage D.C. potential is connected to leads 52 which are connected to masts 48 and 49.

The lower edges of masts 48 and 50 and of masts 49 and 51 are connected together by tension member 53 (FIGURE 2) such as a lightweight cable to hold the masts in their vertical position by providing a force to balance against the tension force of emitting wires 12.

Suitable lead-in wires 54 are provided for connection between collecting grid 14 and the other terminal of the power supply, and are preferably at ground potential. Variable impedances, such as variable width spark gaps which serve to reduce the applied voltage, are provided in lead-in wires 54 for control of voltage between emitting wires 12 and collecting grid 14 to thereby control the vertical movement of the craft.

An actual embodiment built in accordance wit the foregoing descriptions which lifted itself into a self-sustaining flight had a collecting grid surface area of approximately 150 square inches and the space between the collecting grid and the emitting wires 12 was approximately 2 inches. With a craft having the foregoing dimensions, 0.5 milliampere was sufficient to make the craft more than self-sustaining. The total weight of the structure was approximately 5 grams. Other craft having the space between the collecting grid and emitting wires of 5 inches have been successfully flown. Such craft require voltages of the order of 50 to 60 kV. Where the grid area is about 7 or 8 square feel, currents of the order of 2 milliamperes exist. Variations in humidity and air pressure cause variations in the current drawn and in the lifting efficiency.

The lifting capability of the craft was found to increase as the diameter of the grid wires is increased. Crafts were tested with wire diameter of 2, 5, 8 and 12 mils for the collecting grid. With wire diameters of 8 mils or more, the current requirement to provide the same total lifting force shows a detectable decrease thereby indicating a higher efficiency. Hollow tubular conductors having an outer diameter of one-quarter inch also give substantially the same lift force and efficiency as the 8 and 12 mil wire diameters.

A modification of the foregoing structure is shown in FIGURE 3  wherein a central compartment section 60 is provided in the center of a surrounding large area collecting grid 14. A plurality of rigid support sections 62, each composing an upper member 64, a lower member 66, and an intermediate foil 68 extend from the corners of the central section 60 to the periphery of the framework surrounding the collecting grid 14.

Near each of the corners of the outer periphery of collecting grid 14 a mast 70 made of insulating material is provided which supports the outer end of emitting wires 12. A second group of inner support masts 72 mounted on central section 60 provide support for the inner ends of emitting wires 12.

In this embodiment, the central compartment 60 is adapted to house electronic equipment and the power plant and crew where used.

In practice, it has been found desirable to increase the lengths of emitting electrode wires by adding a series of wires 74 which are supported on the main emitting wires 12 and which are parallel to each other and at a distance approximately equal to the distance of the emitting wires from the collecting electrode. The outermost wire is positioned inwardly about one-half the distance between the parallel wires (i.e., from 1 to 3 inches) from the outer frame members on the collecting grid to take full advantage of all the ionised particles which are produced. The radially directed emitting wires 12 are used to electrically connect the non-intersecting wires 74 together. However, the emitting wires 12 should be fewer and much less closely spaced than collecting grid wires 14 in order to avoid electrical symmetry. If the configuration of the emitting electrode wires 12 and the collecting electrode wires 14 are identical, no lifting force is provided.

A further embodiment is shown in FIGURE 4 which is identical with the form shown in FIGURE 3 except that the structure is equipped with positive dihedral for greater stability. Center section 60 is used as a center load carrying or cabin section and the rigid support sections are attached thereto so as to tilt upwardly to form a small angle a. Collecting grids 14 and their associated emitting electrodes 12 on opposite sides of center section 60 are thus angularly related.

This particular craft, because of its horizontal symmetry, is well adapted to be equipped with dihedral in the fore and aft direction as well as in the lateral direction. FIGURE 5  represents in an exaggerated schematic form and apparatus of this type. In FIGURE 5, the central section as shown in FIGURE 4 has been omitted and four collecting grids 14 are of a triangular shape with the inverted apex or nadir 69 of the system at the bottom and center of the apparatus. Separate emitting wires 12 are mounted from masts 71 supported centrally of the side edges and at the nadir. Each of the four collecting grids may be insulated from each other by a gap or insulating material and variable resistance incorporated in their lead-in connections (not shown) to the power supply. By independently varying the resistance of the collecting grids the craft, which is here assumed rigid, may be tilted in any direction.

FIGURES 6 and 7 are top plan and side elevations views respectively of a further embodiment which has a negative dihedral. In this embodiment, the collecting grid frame composes four outer peripheral lightweight wooden or metal members 600, 601, 602 and 603 which are mounted in a lower plane and four inner members 604, 605, 606 and 607 which are parallel to the respective outer members but in a plane higher then the plane containing the outer members. In an embodiment where the outer peripheral members were three feet long, the vertical distance between the planes carrying the inner and outer members was four inches. This negative dihedral has been found to provide greater stability during hovering flight than the positive dihedral though the positive dihedral appears to provide equally good stability for horizontal flight.

The collecting grid is divided into four equal areas by diagonally oriented frame assemblies 608, 609, 610 and 611. The collecting grid area visible in FIGURE 7 is bounded by rigid frame members 612 and 613 of diagonal frame assemblies 608 and 609 respectively and inner and outer frame members 604 and 600. The collecting grid, as pointed out above, may be a crossed grid of wires. The other three collecting grid areas are of identical size and construction.

Inside of inner frame members 604, 605, 606 and 607, no collecting grid screen is provided and the space may be left open or if desired, covered with a lightweight foil of insulating or conducting material. This air-tight foil forms a pocket under which a pressure appears to build up to provide added lift. The insulation material is preferred since this does not interfere with the electrical isolation between the four quadrants of the collecting grid which, as will be pointed out below, are used for guiding and/or propelling the craft.

Diagonal frame assembly 608 contains four cross braces 626, 628, 630 and 632 between frame members 612 and 613. The cross braces are made of an insulating material such as wood to thereby insulate each of the four grid sections from one another. Frame members 612 and 613 intersect and are secured together above and inwardly behind member 604. Members 614 and 615 also intersect and are secured together, as do members 616 and 617 and members 618 and 619. These points of intersection are joined together by four struts 620 shown in FIGURE 6. Secured to the centers of each of struts 620 is a four-sided chimney 622, each of the sides being flat sheets of a lightweight insulating material such as wood.

A center frame member 624 is mounted between the center of cross brace 626 and the top of chimney 622 along each of the diagonal frame assemblies. This construction gives adequate rigidity to prevent warpage of the collecting grid frame assembly.

The emitting wires are illustrated diagrammatically as waving lines and make up a pattern of three parallel wires 640, 641 and 642 and one transverse wire 643 across each grid area. Four supporting masts 464, 647, 648 and 649 are mounted on cross braces 628 are secured to center frame member 624 in each of the four diagonal frame assemblies 608, 609, 610 and 611. Emitting wire 640 is supported on the upper end of each of masts 646, 647, 648 and 649 with sufficient tautness to be substantially equidistant from the collecting grid at all points.

Four supporting masts 650, 651, 652 and 653 are mounted to cross braces 630 and center frame members 624 in each of the four diagonal frame assemblies for supporting emitting wire 641. Four additional masts (not numbered) are mounted to cross braces 632 and center frame members 624 to similarly support emitting wire 642.

At the mid-points of each of the outer frame members 600, 601, 602 and 603, masts 656 are mounted to support the outer end of emitting wires 643, which extend under and in electrical contact with each of emitting wires 640, 641 and 642 to a center mast 660 which is suitably mounted to the top of chimney 622.

On electrical terminal 662 for the emitting wires is shown on the right side of the craft of FIGURES 6 and 7. Four individual electrical terminals 664, 665, 666 and 667 are provided for each of the four grid sections. If it is not desired to control the posture and movement of the craft by the four separate sections, collecting grid terminals 664, 665, 666 and 667 may all be connected together.

Also, it is obvious that the four electrically separate sections could be achieved by using four insulated emitting wire sections, either with the four separate collecting grid sections or with all the collecting grid sections connected together.

The foregoing craft weighted about 100 grams and with a 5 inch spacing between the emitting wires and collecting grid, was self-sustaining with a voltage of about 50 to 60 kV, and a current on the order of 2 milliamperes.

Instead of using a crossed wire mesh construction for the collecting grid as shown in detail in FIGURE 1, it has been found that tubes of conductive material having an outer diameter of about one-quarter inch are equally as good. Such tubes may be made of aluminum foil wrapped around paper or may be hollow lightweight aluminum tubing or of a similar construction. For example, material such as an air tight nylon base fabric having an evaporated metallic coating of for example aluminum may be fabricated in the form of tubes having a wall thickness of less then 1 mil and be adapted to be inflated with air or inert gas to form a hollow lightweight tubular member. The cross section may be circular, oval or the like; a tear drop shape as illustrated in FIGURE 8 is a preferred configuration since air flow across the tapering lower edge provides additional lift. For the craft configuration as shown in FIGURES 6 and 7, the inflated tubes of FIGURE 8 are mounted parallel to each other and to the outer and inner frame members 600 and 604, or to their corresponding members in each of the other collecting grid sections, with their ends secured to the diagonal frame assemblies 608, 609, 610 and 611.

Other emitting electrode constructions may also be used. For example, emitting wires 640-644 may have suspended from them a plurality of short wires 680 as shown in FIGURE 9 which provide a point of discharge rather than a line of discharge to thereby increase the efficiency of ionisation. In FIGURE 9, only emitting wire 640 and its supporting masts 646 and 647 from the embodiment shown in FIGURES 6 and 7 are illustrated. It is to be understood that all of the emitting wires may be of similar construction to that illustrated in FIGURE 9. Each of wires 680 is about 1 to 3 or more inches in length and separated at least one inch apart. The lower ends of wires 680 are kept at a uniform distance from the collecting grid. This construction may offer some pre-ionisation, though measurements show this emitting electrode construction to be about comparable to the use of plain wire as the emitting electrode.

FIGURE 10 illustrates an elevation view, and FIGURES 11 and 12 illustrate plan views of modified triangular and rectangular shaped Ionocrafts respectively. The craft of FIGURE 11 is triangular in config-uration and is provided with emitting wires 12 suitably supported from masts 48 as illustrated. In practice additional emitting wires may be used. Collecting grid 14 extends over a large area beneath emitting wires 12 and may be formed of crossed wires as diagrammatically illustrated.

The electromagnetic energy antenna carried by the foregoing Ionocraft embodiments may comprise a series of generally horizontal, parallel conducting elements or dipoles 70 arranged along the basic side structure on which the wires 12 and 14 of the craft are attached. Dipoles 70 may be of differing length so that the antenna provided may receive or transmit several different frequencies. For frequencies of the order of 10 megacycles, for example, several dipoles 71, 74 and 76 may be arranged as a tuned array, such as the yagi array, with one or more dipoles 71 serving as a director, dipole 74 serving as the main antenna element and dipole 76 serving as a reflector. Such antenna is highly directional and with an Ionocraft of triangular configuration, the antenna may be used with signal transmission in three separate directions simultaneously.

The antenna wires 70-76 may be small diameter rods of a conductive material such as aluminum, supported on lightweight rods or bars 78 of either a conducting or insulating material, as dictated by conventional antenna construction techniques. Additional antenna elements 80, 82 and 84 may be present as metal rods or wires separated electrically from the adjacent antenna elements by insulators 86 of a suitable light material such as wood, plastic or the like, indicated on the drawing by spaces.

The various antenna elements 70-84 and insulators 86 may comprise a rigid frame forming the basic structure for the craft and inside of which the collecting grid 14 is supported and upon which the discharge electrodes 11 are mounted. The antenna elements 70-84 may be stacked vertically if desired to improve both the efficiency of the antenna and the rigidity of the basic structure. To the extent that the antenna elements may be galvanically connected together without interfering with the operation of the antenna in its conventional manner, the antenna elements are preferably connected to the same DC potential as collecting grid 14. Thus, the antenna elements may also augment the operation of the Ionocraft by neutralising charged ions which provide the propelling force.

In the rectangular embodiment of FIGURE 12, the several antenna dipoles 90 have different lengths so as to be equal to one half the wave length X of the frequency being transmitted for an entire spectrum of frequencies having different wave lengths Xx, X2, X3… Xn. Since the length of a side of the Ionocraft may be several hundred feet or greater, such construction is ideally suited for communi-cation systems, whether operating with high or low frequencies.

With either of the configurations of FIGURE 11 or FIGURE 12, the view in elevation will be substantially as illustrated in FIGURE 10 where the particular antenna structure is indicated schematically and designated by reference numeral 92. A ground station antenna which is indicated diagrammatically at 94 on FIGURE 10 may be provided for directing the signals downwardly to the ground station. Antenna 94 may be of any desired conventional type and connected on the Ionocraft to the main antenna structure 92 by a suitable transmission line such as coaxial cable, twin lead lines or hollow pipe wave-guide, depending upon the particular frequencies utilised. Amplifiers or frequency converters may also be provided in the transmission line where signal strength is weak. The amplifiers and/or frequency converters may be powered by well known self-contained batteries or by the power supply unit for the Ionocraft (not shown).

Referring now to FIGURES 13 and 14, a further embodiment of the invention is illustrated which has a plurality of side sections, four of which are shown curved. The contour of the curves may be parabolic or of any other shape as is conventionally used for antennas in high frequency systems such as radar or the like. In this embodiment, an outside frame of lightweight rigid 0.5 members 96, 98, 100 and 102 is provided to define the contour of the antenna shape. Lightweight wires or rods 104 extend between members 95 and 102 to serve as part of the antenna. Lightweight sheet metal of a material such as aluminum may be used in lieu of wires 104 for the 30 reflector surface if desired.

A plurality of horns 106 are illustrated in the drawings to effect simultaneous radar scanning through 360°. By oscillating the illustrated Ionocraft about its vertical center line through an angle of only 45° on each side of a center position, complete 360° scanning may be effected. Alternatively, the Ionocraft may be rotated continuously about its vertical center line and 360° scanning effected by one or more antennas. Such scanning may be effected by warped corners, reactive or propeller blasts of auxiliary power plant, or by auxiliary grids which are mounted for movement relative to the main lifting grid as will be described below. Scanning may be effected by other means as will become apparent from the following description. In lien of or supplemental to some of the microwave antennas 106, antenna reflectors for infrared detectors may be carried on the Ionocraft. Such antennas serve to collect the infrared energy over a large area and focus such energy on a small infrared detector, and they may be of any conventional construction. The basic structure 10 between spaced antennas may contain such equipment to transmit via wireless signal channels to the ground station through ground station antenna 94, signals corresponding to the electromagnetic and radio frequency signals received. Horizontal movement of the craft may be effected by the principles set forth in Serial No. 760,390 of Glenn E.Hagen filed September 11, 1958, by tilting the craft downwardly in the forward direction whereby the ionic propulsion force provides a horizontal force component to cause the craft to move in a horizontal direction. Tilting of the craft may easily be effected through variation of the voltage between emitting electrodes 12 and collecting grid electrode 14. For example, by electrically separating the craft into four sections of substantially equal size as illustrated in FIGURE 15, the voltage applied to two of the adjacent sections can be reduced by adding resistance in series with the current path and this will cause the lift produced by these two sections to decrease relative to the lift produced by the two other sections. Thus, horizontal movement of the craft may easily be controlled from the ground station. For manual control of the posture and flight movement of the craft of the present invention, it has been found desirable to provide a control stick assembly which functions similar to that familiar to persons flying other types of aircraft. The control stick must function in both the longitudinal and lateral directions simultaneously and independently. Variable control elements such as potentiometers and variable transformers (powerstats for instance) may be used for control of the present invention. The posture of the craft may be controlled by dividing the collecting grid into three or more electrically separate regions as illustrated by the embodiment shown in FIGURES 6 and 7 and by individually varying the electrical potential to each of the separate regions. The potential may be increased to act as an elevator or may be decreased to act as a spoiler, and the voltage may be increased on one side while being simultaneously decreased on the other side to increase the effectiveness of the control.

Also, the emitting wires may be divided into three or more electrically separate regions and the electrical potential individually varied to each separate region. Again the potential may be increased or decreased, and may be simultaneously increased in one region and decreased in the opposite region.

To change the voltage to an individual region of the craft, a separate power supply for each region may be provided and the variable control element for changing the output voltage may be adjusted to produce the desired voltage level. Where a single power supply is provided, variable resistance may be placed in the electrical conductors leading to the appropriate terminals on the craft. If the craft is normally airborne with resistance present in the conductors, then increased voltage can be supplied to one region of the craft by decreasing the resistance in the conductor connected to that region. A decreased voltage can be supplied similarly by increasing the amount of resistance, and combination of increased and decreased voltages may be supplied to opposite sides of the craft to increase response of the craft to the controls.

One of the more simple ways to utilise the power supplied to the craft, I prefer not to have extra resistance in the power supply circuit of the emitting wires during normal flight and to control the posture of the craft by individually adding resistance into the circuit connected to each individual region of the collector grid. Such method of control has been found to provide adequate control of the Ionocraft and a control stick assembly will be described which utilises variable resistance elements which are conventionally known as potentiometers or rheostats.

In FIGURE 16 the collecting grid construction as shown in the preceding embodiments (see for example FIGURES 6 and 7) is illustrated with each of the four grid sections W, X, Y, and Z connected through a separate correspondingly designated potentiometer to one terminal of the power supply. The emitting wires shown diagrammatically as waving lines are connected through a throttle control potentiometer, which is used to control the maximum voltage applied between the emitting wires and all of the collecting grid sections. When this voltage exceeds a certain level but yet remains less than that which causes arcing, the craft will rise. The effect of potentiometers A, B, C and D is to controllably reduce the voltage between the emitting wires and any one or two specific grid sections to thereby reduce or subtract from the effectiveness of that portion of the craft in producing its lifting force. This then causes the craft to tilt downwardly in the direction of whichever of the grid sections has the reduced voltage.

Referring now to FIGURES 17 and 18 front and side elevations of the control stick are shown with the respective shafts of the four potentiometers labelled A, B, C and D. On each of these shafts spur gears (not shown) are provided to be driven by gear segments secured to the stick.

The control stick is mounted for pivotal movement about pin P having axis X and about pin Q having axis Y beneath, but in the same vertical plane as axis X. Pin Q is mounted with its ends in opposite side walls W of the control stick housing.

The entire stick assembly shown in FIGURES 17 and 18 is mounted for unitary movement in a plane perpen-dicular to the longitudinal axis Y of pin Q. This as-sembly comprises bracket F which has secured to one side face spur gear G which need have only a segment thereof with teeth to mate with the pinion gears on the shafts of potentiometers B and D. The housings for potentiometers B and D are mounted on housing walls W, and the center of the gear segment on gear G coincides with axis Y of pin Q.

The ends of pin P are mounted in opposite sides of bracket B to enable the control stick to rock in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis X of pin P. The lower end of the control stick is bifurcated as shown in FIGURE 18 and adapted to pivot about pin P. Gear segment H, having its center at axis X of pin P, is secured to the control stick for driving pinions on the shafts of potentiometers A and C which are mounted on bracket F.

The foregoing construction permits the control stick to function both in a longitudinal direction and in the lateral direction simultaneously to function as an electrostatic spoiler in the sense that when the craft is airborne, the addition of resistance in the lead-in wire to a particular grid section spoils the lift of that section to thereby control the posture of the craft in flight.

In the described embodiment, stick movement was limited to about 40° by mechanical stops not shown. The pitch diameter of each gear segment G and H was about 6 inches and the pitch diameter of the pinion gears on the potentiometer shafts was about 1 inch. The potentiometer gear shafts were capable of rotating through 240°, and were spring biased to a zero resistance con-dition.

As is apparent from FIGURES 17 and 18, the position of the pinion gears for the four potentiometers A, B, C and D is at the exact ends of the corresponding gear segments so that when the control stick is in its illustrated vertical position, each potentiometer is rendered ineffective to add any resistance to any of the collecting grid sections. As the control stick is tilted, one of the potentiometer shafts is rotated and there is absolutely no possibility that the potentiometer to the opposite grid section can be made effective at the same time because the partial gear segment and the spring loaded potentiometer shafts are used. The length of each gear segment must be at least as large as the maximum angle through which the stick can be moved, and the pinion gears are preferably at the precise ends of the gear segments.

It was found that if the potentiometer shafts were not spring loaded, the gears would upon occasion rotate slightly so the teeth did not always mesh when the stick was moved in a direction so that the gear segment should have engaged the potentiometer pinion. By the manual control stick just described, adequate tilt of the craft is readily achieved. The position of the craft in air may be remotely controlled from a ground station through wireless control systems which may be of any suitable known type. The horizontal position of the craft may also be controlled automatically. For example, the position of the craft of the present invention may be automatically controlled in space through means of suitable centering or tracking appara-tus operating on well known principles, such for example as are disclosed in U.S. Patent Nos. 2,513,367 to Scott, or 2,604,601 to Menzel. In such tracking apparatus, one form of which is diagrammatically illustrated in FIGURE 15, a beam of electromagnetic energy, such as light or infrared, is centered on a suitable photocell 128 which generates control signals that are used to control variable impedances to reduce the voltage applied to various sections of the craft to thereby control the position of the craft in accordance with the position of the beam source at the ground station.

FIGURE 15 illustrates in detail suitable horizontal 7a positioning control arrangement. The common grid electrode 14 is connected to the negative terminal of the power supply and the emitting wires 12 are electrically separated into four sections, viz. left front LF, left rear LR, right front RF and right rear RR. Each of these sections is connected through variable impedances 130, 132, 134 and 136 respectively of the elevator control unit and the variable impedances 138 and 140 of the aileron control unit to the positive terminal of the power supply. The elevator motor 142 drives the movable con-tacts on variable impedances 130, 132, 134 and 136 and the aileron motor 144 controls in a similar manner values of the impedances 138 and 140. Each motor 142 and 144 may be driven by separate amplifiers 146 and 148 and pre-amp 150 in a manner as conventionally used in servo systems to position photocell unit 128 directly in alignment with a source of electromagnetic energy positioned on the ground.

Referring now to FIGURE 19, a craft having a central cabin 160 and equipped with dihedral is illustrated. The collecting grid 14 and emitting wire 12 construction may be similar to that described in connection with FIGURE 4  and be positioned on alternate sides of cabin 160. Beneath cabin 160, a suitable wheeled, skid or pontoon landing gear 162 may be provided.

Depending beneath frame members 164 and on opposite sides of cabin 160 are a pair of auxiliary grid as-semblies 166 and 167 that are mounted to be operable in a generally vertical plane. Each auxiliary grid assembly 166 and 167 is provided with laterally spaced emitting wires 168 and a collecting grid within outer frame members 170 so that upon receipt of a suitable D.C. potential, a horizontal thrust is provided in the manner here in before set forth.

Each auxiliary grid assembly 166 and 167 is mounted on frame members 164 for independent rotational move-ment about substantially horizontal axes 172 and 173. With the emitting wires 168 of both auxiliary grid assemblies facing in the same direction, the craft will proceed in the direction toward the emitting wires. With the emitting wires 168 of auxiliary grid assembly 167 facing in a rearward direction and emitting wires of grid assembly 166 facing in a forward direction as illustrated in FIGURE 19, the craft will revolve about an axis midway between the effective centers of the two grid assemblies. If the craft is simultaneously tilted in a cyclical manner, an effective radar antenna searching motion is provided which may include a large vertical angle as well as a 360° horizontal scanning operation.

Except where rotation of the craft for searching or scanning operations is a principal purpose for the craft, the emitting wires 168 of each auxiliary grid assembly 166 and 167 are mounted to face in the same direction. When landing or taking off, which is always accomplished in a vertical direction, auxiliary grid assemblies 166 and 167 are preferably pivoted into a horizontal plane. This not only retracts them to prevent interference with landing operations, but also provides a multiple deck structure to give additional lift and control of stability. Horizontal speed may be controlled by varying the angle of auxiliary grid assemblies 166 and 167 with the vertical.

As shown in FIGURE 20, the Ionocraft may comprise several decks 180, 182 and 184 each of which is of similar construction to the single-decked craft shown in FIGURES 10-14. Each of the basic structures 180, 18l and 184 may comprise different antenna types if desired. Several separate ground station antennas 186, 188 and 190 may be provided particularly where independent signals are transmitted and received by the several antennas of the Ionocraft.

In FIGURE 21, a multiple decked craft is illustrated which comprises a central cabin 20P, from which two lifting grid assemblies 292 and 203 extend laterally on opposite sides which are equipped with dihedral. Above grid assemblies 201 and 203, one or more pairs of similar grid assemblies 204 and 205 are supported by a suitable superstructure 108. The turning axes 212 and 213 for auxiliary grid assemblies 210 and 211 in this embodiment are substantially vertical and extend through support members 214 and 215 to the upper grid assemblies 204 and 105 to provide added rigidity to the craft structure. Retractable antennas 220 and 221 may be provided beneath cabin 200 for establishing communication channels to the ground station (not shown).

In general, it makes little difference whether the emitting wires 12 are connected to the negative or to the positive terminal of the power supply. By tests, it has been determined that with emitting wires 12 connected to the negative terminal, there is an improvement of about 5% over that obtained when the emitting wires 12 are connected to a positive terminal.

In the multiple deck constructions, it is preferable to connect emitting wires 12 and collector grid wires 14 of the adjacent decks to opposite terminals of the high voltage generator as illustrated in FIGURE 20, thus making discharge or emitting wires 12 in alternate decks positive and the collector grids negative which is the reverse of the .polarity shown in FIGURE 1. In that case, tilting is effected by varying either the negative or positive potential of the corresponding emitting electrode wires and grid sections to provide a rolling movement longitudinally and laterally.

All the above mechanisms and procedures provided for manual control can be utilised for automatic control actuated by an automatic pilot director through suitable servo-mechanisms.

The tilting of the craft in the case of embodiments like those diagrammatically indicated in FIGURE 15 and 16 provides forward gliding movements much in the manner that a helicopter is propelled in a horizontal direction. Where other means are used for horizontal propulsion, such for example the auxiliary grids shown in FIGURES 19 and 21 or in conjunction with propellers or jet stream, then the tilting will be used to maintain a desirable posture in space. All these move-ments may be controlled automatically by conventional stabilising and steering mechanisms borne by the craft or such movement may be accomplished from remote transmitting points either on the ground or from another airborne craft.

The maximum size of crafts of the type here involved is theoretically unlimited, except for structural considera-tions, since the mount of lift provided increases continuously with area. It is thus contemplated that a particularly useful function of the craft of the present invention may be to serve as means for destruction through collision oncoming vehicles and missiles through air and space. Intercontinental as well as space missiles enter the atmosphere over a target area in predictable trajectories, the terminal end of which is a substantially vertical path. Thus, the large horizontal area of the craft of the present invention is particularly suitable for the purpose of protecting sensitive target areas such as large cities, naval task forces, troop concentrations and the like by its mere physical presence during hovering operations. By manoeuvring the craft laterally it is possible to protect an area much larger than the area of the craft since present detection systems give identifying information of the target area about 15 minutes prior to arrival of the missile and the lateral movement of the craft may be effected at speeds of the order of 60 miles per hour, or more depending upon the horizontal propulsion system used. If the target area is vast, several Ionocraft could be maintained aloft to assure collision with oncoming missiles.

While the craft may be powered through conductors 70 extending from ground or ship towers or via microwave power transmissions, it is contemplated that lightweight power plants such as gas turbines or the like, be used to drive suitable high voltage generators which are aboard the craft. As shown in FIGURE 22, turbine 230 may be so mounted that its exhaust is directed vertically downwardly to provide additional lifting force while providing shaft rotation for producing the electrical power for the Ionocraft. Turbine 230 is here shown to be mounted for pivotal movement about the axis of shaft 232 which is driven by a tilt motor 134 to change the direction of the exhaust gases from vertical toward a horizontal direction. The entire tilt motor 234, shaft 232 and turbine 230 assembly may be mounted to be rotated in azimuth by azimuth motor 236 driving annular ring gear 238. Thus, in emergency operations where maximum horizontal speeds are desired, motors 234 and 236 may be controlled to advance the craft at higher velocities.

Other types of convention airborne power plants, such as :turbine propeller combinations, may also be utilised for providing additional lift and aiding in maneuvring in the atmosphere. The turbine of FIGURE 15 may be provided with a reverse thrust device or such propellers may have a reversible pitch, and steering may be accomplished by rudders or vanes located in the jet stream of the turbine. Also, high voltage generation by radioactive isotopes is another method of obtaining the necessary high voltage energy or a primary source of ionisation for the propulsion and sustenance of the Ionocraft.

It is also contemplated that this craft may be supplied with electrical power transmitted to the Ionocraft while in flight by microwaves. It has .been demonstrated 80% of the energy emitted from a ground station microwave antenna array can be collected in the form of heat by airborne vehicles. In this case, such heat may be readily converted into high voltage by conventional means such as turbines operating high voltage generators, suitable thermocouples and vibrator-transformer converters or the like. The use of high power microwave amplifiers, such as Amplitrons (Raytheon Co.), for power transmission via microwaves can provide the requisite power for a craft of this type. Therefore, it may be not essential that a self contained power unit be carried by the craft for special uses.

In the preferred form of the craft adapted for military purposes, directional detecting apparatus such as radar or infrared equipment will be carried by the craft to enable an antenna on the craft to lock-on any target object in air and space for the purpose of guiding the craft into the path of such oncoming target object. An Ionocraft of sufficient lift capacity may carry its own computers to process the electromagnetic information to provide the necessary impulses to the controls of the propulsive means to place the craft in the path of collision. Such craft may also be guided from the surface of the earth or from an airborne vehicle in flight, by remote control means to accomplish the collision with an oncoming object.

Explosives may be carried by the Ionocraft for destroying such oncoming objects if the mass of the Ionocraft is inadequate for destructive purposes. Such explosives may be of any known type and adapted to be detonated either upon impact or by proximity fuses where desired. Other types of countermeasures or defensive devices for causing premature explosions of the warhead of a missile may be carried by the Ionocraft as occasions arise.

The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.

Related US Patents —US Patent # 3,120,363
Flying Apparatus
G.E. Hagen

US Patent # 3,464,207
Quasi-Corona Aerodynamic Vehicle
Ernest C.Okress

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Robert L. Cook- the “Cook Inertial Propulsion Engine”

Written By: admin - May• 19•10

Marjorie Riley: Vallejo Independent Press (21 Feb 1987); “Meet Robert Cook, Resident Inventor”

Robert. Cook: “The Conversion of Centrifugal Force Into Linear Force and Motion”
David Doll, et al.: United Air Lines Test Center & Process Engineering Report D-71-77 (11-11-1971)
John Davidson: Concord Transcript (CA): Thursday 2 December 1971; “Concord Man Invents New Propulsion Plan”
June Land: Stockton Record 79(#308); Tues., 12 Feb. 1974; Newton Challenged”
Sue Shoemaker: The Green Sheet 59 (#29); Friday, 8 Feb. 1974; “Machine Challenges Newton’s Law of Motion”
Robert Cook: US Patent # 3,683,707; “Propulsion System”
R. Cook: US Patent # 4,238,968; “Device for Conversion of Centrifugal Force to Linear Force and Motion”

Robert Cook’s Website:

The Cook Inertial Propulsion Engine (December 1999) ~

Vallejo Independent Press (Friday, February 21, 1987)

“Meet Robert Cook: Resident Inventor”
by Marjorie Riley

Robert Cook, 47, Vallejo’s “resident inventor”, started “tooling around with machinery” when he was a very small boy.

It’s easy to see why. His father, a civil and mining engineer, moved the family “all over the place” as he went from job to job in Texas, Nevada, and California, and in the process taught his son just about everything he knew about mathematics and machinery.

Not long ago this informally educated engineer was granted a patent by the US Patent Office for his “Device for Converting Centrifugal Force to Linear Force and Motion”. More recently, he was a guest speaker at the annual dinner meeting of the National Association of Naval Technical Supervisors, Mare Island Chapter. Following the formal lecture, Cook talked “until midnight” with a dozen or so nuclear physicists and scientists who were among the audience about his invention and the book, “The Death of Rocketry” which he recently co-authored with physicist Joel Dickinson.

Pretty impressive when you learn that after graduating from Mt. Diablo High School, young Robert enrolled in engineering school, but quit not long afterwards.

“I was bored”, he said, smiling at the memory. “They weren’t teaching me anything I hadn’t already learned from my dad. It seemed like a waste of time.”

Eager to start working with machinery, young Cook became an apprentice printing pressman instead, working for the old Walnut Creek Kernel. Later he worked as first pressman on the big 150-ton Goss Urbanite offset press in Gazette Press, a Berkeley commercial printing press.

Cook is credited with eight separate inventions relating to his printing press days. “It was a good introduction to ‘spin dynamics’”, he said, “a concept that has fascinated me ever since.”

Concerning Cook’s recently published book, “The Death of Rocketry”, one Association member said, “One chapter begins with an explanation of the principle behind Cook’s Inertial Propulsion engine and some thoughts on how our lives will be changed when the device is perfected and in production. Another chapter deals with the controversy that Cook’s device has stirred — it creates an internal force for propulsion and therefore refutes Sir Isaac Newton’s laws of motion, particularly the third one which holds that there is an equal and opposite reaction. Cook has charged Newton’s laws are incorrect, thus challenging the entire foundation of physics and mechanics, of his device does work.”

A news release from The Communication Process in San Francisco states: “The… [invention]… apparently contradicts Newton’s third law of motion, and he (Cook) has met with severe criticism and disbelief from scientific and academic establishments. Nevertheless he (Cook) has successfully built numerous working models and is now in the process of building a flying vehicle powered by the CIP unit.”

Concerning the invention, Cook himself says: “The rocket was abandoned as a serious means of propulsion shortly after its invention by the Chinese in 1214 AD. Although in recent years the rocket has been revived by the industrialized nations of the world, the extremely low efficiencies involved — 2% or less — make it a less-than-satisfactory method of travel, especially for outer space applications. Clearly, of mankind wishes to make significant advance in the exploration of space, an alternative and more efficient means of propulsion must be developed.

“The Cook Inertial Propulsion (CIP) engine provides the new technology needed for a major step forward in space exploration. The CIP engine is not a new energy source, but a tested and proven method of converting Coriolis and centrifugal forces into linear thrust. The result is a reactionless propulsive system powered by conventional energy sources which is expected to yield efficiencies in the range of 80-85% when fully perfected.”

“The Conversion of Centrifugal Force Into Linear Force and Motion”

by Robert Cook

Years ago, Albert Einstein remarked:

“When first studying mechanics, one has the impression that everything in this branch of science is simple, fundamental and settled for all time. One would hardly suspect the existence of an important clue which no one noticed for 300 years. The neglected clue is connected with one of the fundamental concepts of mechanics — that of Mass.”

And now, with the discovery of the CIP engine mechanical principle, which has been followed by the successful demonstration of many CIP engine prototypes, another neglected clue in the field of mechanics has been found — that of an internal, reactionless force which can be produced by converting centrifugal force into a linear thrust.

Science in general has considered centrifugal force a “pseudo force” incapable of affecting motion to any great degree. “Bounded motion” is all centrifugal force was considered capable of producing. I will show that a constant linear force can be produced by centrifugal force when properly controlled.

I will limit my comments on Newtonian Law to his 3rd law of motion regarding action and reaction because my work deals with reactionless force systems deemed unworkable by this 3rd law.

Background of the Experiments ~

In my early experiments starting February 1968, I had originally started to search for a new energy source based on a combination of forces, i.e., gravity, magnetism, and centrifugal force. An error I made in design resulted in the discovery of a new method of propulsion and ended (temporarily) my search for a new energy source. The early system utilized a Coriolis Effect to create the propulsive effect, but it was highly inefficient (about 1%).

A report, “D-71-77” dated 11-11-71 prepared by the engineering staff of United Airlines Test Center in San Francisco, concluded that although highly inefficient, the system nonetheless worked in spite of Newton’s laws. A series of accelerometer tests completed in late December 1972 by this same group also proved the system was producing an internal force, but also showed poor efficiency.

After numerous attempts to improve the efficiency of that system which was granted US Patent # 3,683,707, I decided in late 1974 to look for another more efficient method to create unidirectional force.

The series of tests concluded in a 6-month span in 1974 had given me three clues on how to do this, and they were:

1. The system would require counter-rotating rotors.
2. The system would require a series of flexible drive shafts for the rotors.
3. A positive control for the inertia of the propellant mass would be needed.

The fourth and final clue would be sound in November of that year. This last clue dealt with the splitting and transferal of the propellant mass.

How the CIP Works ~

In order to understand the reasons for the formerly mentioned series of mechanical actions, we must analyze the effects of unbalanced spinning rotors on wheels in effecting motion.

If we build an unbalanced rotor resembling a one-bladed aircraft propeller (Fig. 1), and spin it in a horizontal plane, it will tend to cause a gyrating force or a force in all directions in that horizontal plane.

Fig. 1: Unbalanced Rotor ~ ***

In order to control gyration, we need counter-rotation and synchronization, so if we take two counter-rotating unbalanced rotors and spin them together (Fig. 2), the gyration will become an oscillation or it could be called an alternating force similar to AC current.

Fig. 2: Two Unbalanced Rotors Produce Alternating Force ~ ***

If the unbalanced centrifugal force is plotted on a graph, it will show a regular sine wave exactly as a single phase alternating current.

If we are to propel with this force, we must rectify it by causing a multiple spin.

The multiple spin is needed in order to effect the “energy state” of the propellant mass. This amounts to an orbit and a spin for the propellant mass.

The reason for this is best shown by analyzing a 2-bladed helicopter rotor.

If a helicopter is not moving through the air, but is sitting on the ground with the rotor spinning at a high speed, and the blade tips are moving at say 300 mph, this velocity will remain the same relative to the environment all around the circle of rotation. If we, some way, could cause the rotor tips to fly off at the 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock positions simultaneously, then the tips would leave in a tangent or straight line to the front and back of the helicopter and their speed would be 300 mph in two different or opposite directions. Their momentum or energy state would be identical — the same amount of energy or resisting force would be required to stop them individually. Their energy state is the same.

If the helicopter is then flown forward at say 100 mph, something very interesting happens to the energy state of these rotor tips when they reach the 9 and 3 o’clock positions. If we view the rotor from the top and see it rotating clockwise, the following will become obvious when the helicopter is moving at 100 mph.

1. The rotor (A) at the 9 o’clock position will be moving through the air at 400 mph while rotor B at the 3 o’clock position will move at 200 ph through the air (Pilots must consider the advance ratio of the ‘copter blades or it goes out of control.).

2. If we now release the rotor tips in these same positions (3 and 9 o’clock), tip A will leave (in a tangent) at 400 mph, and tip B will leave at 200 mph. The inertial state can be determined by the momentum equation, Momentum = MV.

It’s obvious that tip A with twice the velocity will have 2 times more energy and be in a higher energy state than tip B.

The point I am trying to make very clear is that when the center of rotation of 2 spinning masses arranged in this fashion is moved in a straight line (or in a circle like the upper arm of the CIP unit does), the energy state of the two masses will be affected; one mass will increase its energy state, while the other one decreases.

The rotor on the demonstration model is set like a helicopter rotor that spins in a vertical plane instead of horizontal and also orbits. This is what allows one half of the propellant mass to be transferred while in a low energy state.

The Oscillator & Nucleus ~

Once the small rotor sheds one half of its mass, the rotor goes temporarily out of balance and in order to prevent negative force impulses from causing negative effects on the overall system, the rotor is allowed to oscillate and its oscillations are controlled by a built-in Nuclear Mass which actually provides the centripetal force to make the mass, still attached to the small rotor, spin in the ideal fashion. A motion limiting slot as well as a flexible drive shaft complete the unit. Although one rotor unit works well enough to demonstrate the new principle, the ideal configuration is a 12 rotor combination with units based at 120 degree intervals. This will produce a constant force and would have the potential for vertical lift.

A 12 rotor system should be ready for testing by December of 1981.

Endorsements ~

All scientists and engineers (except for2) have endorsed the CIP principle after seeing the model.

Prof. Ching Fong (former chairman of the Physics Dept, UC Davis, and Prof. Of Solid State Physics) has analyzed the system and estimates the energy efficiency potential at 53% and a propulsion efficiency of 98%.

Prof. Durward Jackson of California State University at Los Angeles declares the system “One of the 10 greatest inventions in history”.
Countless numbers of engineers have declared it the greatest invention in history!

United Air Lines Test Center & Process Engineering Report
By David Doll, et al.

Introduction ~

On 9-10-71 Robert Cook brought to UAL a device designed to convert centrifugal force into a linear thrust. In spite of being declared in violation of the laws of motion by the US Patent Office, Cook’s crudely-built rig moved spasmodically across the floor.

This report provides a dynamic analysis of Cook’s mechanism. The cycle demonstrated by Cooke, as well as two other cycles which offer performance improvements, are examined.

Cook’s Propulsion Cycle ~

Cook set up his working model so that the propellant mass followed the path shown in Figure 3. From point 1 to point 2 the propellant mass is pinned against the end of the tract by centrifugal force. The thrust seen in tis segment is the component of centrifugal force in the direction of the cart motion. This thrust is:

(1) ***

where mp is the propellant mass,
R is one half the sliding distance of the track,
W is the angular velocity of the rotor, and
T is time.

Due to Cook’s positioning of the spring, the propellant mass spends more time behind the center of rotation of the track than forward of the center. Thus, the net thrust in segment 1-2 is negative.

When the propellant mass reached point 2, the spring force overcomes the centrifugal force, and the mass accelerates down the tract to point 3. During this portion of the cycle the system acts as a mechanical analogue to a rocket. The propellant mass is accelerated in the aft direction b the spring force and the resultant reaction produces a forward thrust upon the cart. In addition to this reaction force there is Coriolis force which is the inertial effect occurring when a mass is constrained to move in a straight line across a rotating body. The total thrust in segment 1-2 is:

(2) ***

Where K is the spring constant, and


mo is the mass of the cart.

At point 3 the propellant mass strikes the end of the cart producing a negative impulsive force.

where delta t is the time required to stop the propellant mass, and:

Fo = KR – mpRw2

During this segment of the cycle the propellant is stopped at the expense of the forward momentum of the cart.

The resultant thrust on the cart for the entire cycle is shown in Figure 3. [Not Available]

A Modification of Cook’s Cycle ~

A significant improvement in performance can be achieved by using viscous damping to arrest the propellant mass [i.e.: “Sorbothane”]. Not only can the large negative impulse be avoided, but by delaying the travel of the mass to the end of the track, the negative centrifugal force component can be reduced.

Cook’s cycle could also be improved by the use of a constant force rather than the variable force to accelerate the propellant mass. This would increase the thrust during the ejection stroke by allowing the use of greater force and improving the timing of the stroke.

Concord Transcript (CA): Thursday 2 December 1971

“Concord Man Invents New Propulsion Plan”
by John Davidson

Concord resident Bob Cook, 37, has invented a new propulsion system which he says will cut air pollution and power just about anything that moves.

His only problem is that, thanks to Newton’s third law, he’s having a hard time finding believers.

“For every action, there is an opposite and equal reaction”, said Sir Isaac Newton almost 300 years ago.

According to Cook, who is a printing pressman by trade, these few and “somewhat ambiguous” words are greatly responsible for the delay in developing his new system.

Cook says his system is a completely new way of moving cars, airplanes, etc., by converting centrifugal force into a line of “linear force”.

At this state, his principle is illustrated in a small working model — built with hand tools — that resembles some sort of surrealistic bicycle.

It consists of an aluminum frame, a motor, and four small rotors or “carriers”.

The rotors are hollow and they have weights inside, which can slide back and forth. The motor operates a cam which pulls in springs attached to the rotors.

When the invention is started, it powers the frame forward in a series of jerks because of three actions outlined by Cook:

The spinning of a rotor which sends the weight to one end, which multiplies the force at that end;

As the weighted end of the rotor nears the high point of its forward spin the attached string pulls it back. This generates more resistance at the high point, which results in more positive force there.

The negative centrifugal force created by the weighted end of the rotor in its backward spin is nullified by adding more rotors, which are timed so there is a minimum negative force.

Sounds simple? Not really, says Cook, but it could be put into use now if it weren’t for Newton.

“Some engineers have interpreted Newton’s law to say that such a mechanism will not work (because the backward spin of the rotors presumably would offset the forward spin)”, Cook says. “Others say not so.”

“Several small models have already been built to test the principle involved and they work”, the inventor adds.

“One model was demonstrated at the University of Arizona but it wasn’t endorsed because of Newton’s law! The model worked but that’s besides the point.

Another model was recently demonstrated at the engineering department of United Air Lines in San Francisco. There an engineer was given the job of studying the idea. His conclusion: “The system would work in outer space and might be a good substitute for helicopter rotors”, Cook says. “This engineer felt that this system did not violate Newton’s law.”

Cook also demonstrated a model at NASA’s Ames Research Center at Mt. View, but says engineers there refused to believe that the model was really propelling itself with centrifugal force since they felt Newton’s law was against it.

“Like all new and really outstanding systems, this idea is being met with skepticism and this could delay its development and eventual use for several years”, Cook notes.

Cook, a bachelor who has lived in Concord on and off for almost 20 years, says he has taken time off from his printing trade to work on his system and to try to promote it.

“Off and on for about the last two years I’ve been conducting experiments in Texas (at a relative’s home)”, Cook says. He moved to Concord the latest time about six months ago and has been continuing work at the home of friends.

The inventor says he struck upon the idea for his propulsion system accidentally.

“I was more or less working on a motor — a perpetual motion experiment, just out of curiosity even though that’s considered nutty. I made a mistake which put the motor out of balance. Then I realized it was foing to propel itself. It was at that time I became interested in this principle (centrifugal force).”

After that accidental discovery, Cook says he came to Oakland to see a patent attorney, and a patent search was conducted to see if someone had a similar device.

He says he filed for a patent in April 1969, but it was refused on the grounds it was contrary to the laws of mechanics (Newton’s third law).

After that, Cook refilled according to a change he had made in the design (he found he had made a slight mistake in the original). That was in October of last  year, and that application is still pending.

Right now he says he is in the process of contacting business and getting media coverage.

“I’ld like to see inventor William Lear, who’s working with a steam turbine of cars”, the local inventor says. “I’m looking of someone to help me develop my system.”

The most important use of his device would be in cars, Cook says, since it could be helpful in cutting smog.

“It can be used on just about anything that moves”, he says, noting that it could be powered even by solar energy in space. “All you need is something to cause the rotors to spin.”

In an actual full-sized motor, he adds, there would have to be an 18-rotor mechanism (the rotors would only have to be 8 inches long each).

He centrifugal force propulsion system is not Cook’s invention — he says it’s his eighth. “Practically all of the rest dealt with the printing trade”, he says. “They’ve all worked. But financially speaking, the inventions were too late since those types of presses were just about obsolete.”

Cook, who has a high school education, says he is “more or less self taught. I’m just curious — machinery fascinates me; it just comes second nature to me.”

The inventor claims his centrifugal force system really does not oppose Newton’s law. “When the frame moves, that’s the reaction (in Newton’s principle). This system just diverts the reaction.”

Well, they doubted Copernicus and Freud too…

Stockton Record 79(#308); Tues., 12 Feb. 1974

“Newton Challenged”
by June Land

Isaac Newton’s third law of motion may well have been contradicted Monday afternoon in Stockton.

A contraption resembling a child’s large-scale erector set model, described by its inventor as an internal propulsion device, passed its final test — it moved forward on almost frictionless ice.

Newton’s law says that for every action there has to be an equal and opposite reaction, or to put it another way — for a body to move it must be acted on by an outside source.

“Newton made a mistake, that’s all”, said the inventor, Bob Cook, 39, of Pittsburg, who maintains the device will revolutionize transportation.

The device is made of counter-rotating cams and gears resting on thin blades that are powered by an electric motor, but battery or even solar power could be used, says Cook.

He explained the contraption is propelled by the so-called “phantom” Coriolis force trapped inside the rotors which results in the motion despite the absence of friction.

Webster identifies the Coriolis force as corresponding to the Coriolis acceleration of a body equal to the product of the mass by the Coriolis acceleration and responding as a result of the earth’s rotation for the deflection of projectiles and the motion of the winds to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left I the southern hemisphere.

Skeptics claimed the device would “just sit there and rock back and forth” if all friction were eliminated, said Cook.

It moved forward in short spurts Monday afternoon at Oak Park Ice Rink, however. Cook maintains the experimental model can be improved to get a more constant force by more and a better combination of rotors.

“I have definitely proven the principle is sound by doing all the tests that are required. Now I have to determine the efficiency”, he explained.

Some of the tests included movement on an air cushion suspended from ropes and in a raft floating in a swimming pool.

People say it can’t work because it defies the laws of nature”, said the soft-spoken and rather shy inventor who admitted he has no formal education.

He was a printer for about 18 years in the East Bay area and says he stumbled on the idea for the contraption when he was experimenting with a new energy source.

“I made a mistake and came up with this.”

Cook has been working on the test model for about 6n years and has invested some $50,000, according to an assistant, Joel Dickenson, 24, of Pittsburg.

Cook claims the device can be used to propel automobiles and “could even move in space” if solar power were used.

He patented the device in 1972 and the next step is to either raise capital to produce a working model or to sell the idea to a manufacturer, said Dickenson.

The Green Sheet 59 (#29); Friday, 8 Feb. 1974

“Machine Challenges Newton’s Law of Motion”
by Sue Shoemaker

An apparently simple, 85-pound device which Bob Cook of Pittsburg has invented may not revolutionize transportation and aerospace industries overnight — but then again maybe it will.

Cook has spent the last six years and about $50,000 developing what he claims is a revolutionary new  method of propulsion, which defies scientific laws of nature.

Despite doubts ranging from skepticism to outright disbelief on the part of scientists and engineers at Ames Research Center and United Air Lines, Cook says his device in a more sophisticated form would be capable of solving the energy crisis and propelling any vehicle, from bicycles to space craft.

Basically, Cook’s device consists of four rotors mounted in two levels on a frame. Atop each rotor is a weight which slides back and forth in a short track.

As the rotor turns forward, the weight, attached by a spring to the frame of the machine, slides forward, jerking the machine forward.

As the rotor continues its revolution the weight slides back, but because the speed of the rotor has been reduced the weight moves back with less force than it moves forward, so although the machine jerks backward, the backward jerk is weaker than the forward jerk and the net effect seems to be a slight forward movement.

The forward thrust is intermittent, occurring only when the weight slides forward once per revolution, but Cook and his assistant, Joel Dickinson, are working to improve it by making the forward thrust continuous.

Cook acknowledges the device he is now testing is a crude model, “sort of like the Wright brothers’ first plane”, he says with a chuckle. Although rotor ovelment is now very slow, he says it and the speed of the machine could be increased 1,000 times.

“With the help of advanced hydraulics and ball bearings, there would be hundreds of uses for it”, he says.

Cook was testing the device at Buchanan Air Field in Concord Wednesday and planned to take it back to Ames later in the week. Although it is currently powered by electricity, he says one of the device’s most revolutionary features is that it can run on any type of power, from steam to solar energy.

In addition, he claims the machine needs relatively little power to reach great speeds, an important factor in times of fuel shortage.

“This form of inertial propulsion could eventually be the most widely used form of propulsion. It could outrun anything we have now”, he predicts.

And even of more scientific significance, Cook and Dickinson, who admitted he was an “A-1 skeptic” until he saw the machine, are sure the invention disproves Newton’s Third Law of Motion, that every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

They are confident that once it is accepted by the scientific establishment the device will force a reevaluation of the basis of physics and revolutionize the entire field.

But acceptance does not seem forthcoming, although scientists at both United Airlines and Ames have been sufficiently interested in the device to test and analyze it.

Their conclusion has been that, on a theoretical basis the device should not work; that according to known scientific principles it cannot contradict Newton’s Law and do what Cook believes it does.

But to David Doll, an aeronautical engineer at United, this does not entirely rule out the possibility Cook has really discovered something.

“He may have something in this invention which is not covered by simple Newton’s Law analysis”, Doll says. He added according to Newtonian analysis the helicopter should never have worked.

“Maybe he’s got another helicopter”, he says.

According to Doll, the United scientists concluded the device would not be practical for use by the airlines. In addition to certain technical problems which would be encountered in adapting the device on a large enough scale to lift and propel planes, he says the method is substantially less efficient than current means of propulsion.

“But it’s an interesting device”, Dell says. I can’t really see any promise for it in the industry but its fun to watch. I’m kind of rooting for him.”

An Ames scientist who is familiar with Cook’s work is more discouraging. While the device may have limited success on earth, it would never work in deep space, he claims.

“He’s trying to violate the laws of nature and not having much success”, he said. “But it might be nice as a Christmas toy for the kids.”

Dr. John Trenholm, a physicist at the University of California Lawrence Laboratory at Livermore, is unwilling to be quite so strong in his skepticism.

“I have my doubts that it does what he thinks it does, but the important thing is to see if it performs and then try to explain why”, Trenholm says.

And even if Cook has developed a new form of propulsion, Trenholm says, it is probably so weak that it will never prove useful in transportation.

But even limited success would be very valuable to science, he adds. “The value would not be in practical applications but in pointing out to scientists that in some small way the principles on which they base their work is wrong.

The discovery of just such an “error” years ago led to the development of the hydrogen bomb, he said.

“The scientific community is not always right”, Trenholm pointed out. “There’s no fundamental reason why someone in their backyard in Pittsburg can’t come up with something really significant.”

A former printing pressman, Cook has worked full time on his invention for the past six years. Although he has had no advanced training in engineering or physics he says he comes from a “long line of engineers and physicists”.

US Patent # 3,683,707
“Propulsion System”
Robert Cook

Figures only… Link to the complete patent — PDF format — at the European Patent Office:

US Patent # 4,238,968

Robert Cook
December 16, 1980

“Device for Conversion of Centrifugal Force to Linear Force and Motion”

Abstract ~

A device to employ centrifugal force for use as linear motion utilizing a pair of counter rotating arms about a common axle. One arm contains a mass splitable and transferable to the other arm and back again at one hundred and eighty degree intervals. The device may include a surface travel system or two of such devices may be employed in tandem for any mode of travel.

Inventors:  Cook; Robert L. (605 Wilson Ave., Vallejo, CA 94590)
Appl. No.:  945245     Filed:  September 25, 1978

Current U.S. Class:  74/84R; 74/84S        Intern’l Class:  F16H 033/20
Field of Search:  74/84 R,84 S
References Cited [Referenced By]
U.S. Patent Documents:
# 1,953,964 ~ Apr., 1934 ~ Laskowitz 74/84.
# 2,009,780 ~ Jul., 1935 ~ Laskowitz 74/84.
# 2,306,723 ~ Dec., 1942 ~ Floraday 268/124.
# 2,350,248 ~ May., 1944 ~ Nowlin 74/61.
# 3,555,915 ~ Jan., 1971 ~ Young, Jr. 74/84.
# 3,683,707 ~ Aug., 1972 ~ Cook 74/84.
# 3,968,700 ~ Jul., 1976 ~ Cuff 74/84.

Primary Examiner: Herrmann; Allan D.      Attorney, Agent or Firm: Bielen and Peterson

Claims: [Claims not included here ]



The present invention relates to a device for the conversion of centrifugal force to linear force and, therefore, linear motion. The device may be used to propel any common vehicle such as automobiles, rail cars, and marine, aviation and space carriers, and the like.

As enunciated by Sir Issac Newton, an object directed along a curved path will exert a force against the retraining or directing item. In other words, a force is produced by an object that constantly changes direction, since a change in speed or direction constitutes acceleration. As is well known, the centrifugal force is directly proportional to the mass of the object, or the radius of the circle through which the object moves, or the square of the angular velocity of the spinning object. Therefore, doubling the number of revolutions per minute of the object, will increase the centrifugal force by a factor of four (4).

Centrifugal force often expressed in the amount “times” the normal pull of gravity or “g’s”, may produce a surprisingly large force. For example, an object following a circular path having a radius of ten centimeters, at a rate of six hundred revolutions per minute, generates a centrifugal force which is 41 times gravity.

As can be surmised, a device that enables the transformation of the centrifugal force produced by a rotating body into a linear force, with only a modest efficiency, may be applied to any mode of vehicle travel.

In the past, various attempts have been put forth to reap the advantages of the powerful and easily generated centrifugal force by effecting such a transformation. For example, these apparatuses have rotated mass members and shifted the center of gravity relative to the axis of rotation. The result has been the development of a centrifugal force greater where the mass has shifted, than the remainder of the rotational cycle. In essence, the length of the radius of the arm has been changed. As is well known, the conservation of angular momentum would tend to correspondingly decrease the speed of the mass shifted.

As an example of a successful machine of this type, reference is made to U.S. Pat. No. 3,683,707, issued on Aug. 15, 1972, to applicant. However, machines of this type, although workable, are not efficient enough to produce the desired linear force to warrant general use.


The present invention provides a device for converting the force of a spinning or rotating mass into a linear component of force usable to propel a vehicle in a linear path.

In accordance with the present invention, a first rotating arm is provided, moving about an axis of rotation. A pair of balanced masses rotates at the terminus of the arm in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the first arm. A second arm counter-rotates about the same axis with respect to the first rotating arm and moves within a plane parallel to the plane of rotation of the first arm. A mechanism cooperative between the first and second arms permits the transfer of one of the balanced weights from the first arm to the second arm. At a selected point in the rotational path of both arms, one of the masses transfers causing cancellation of the centrifugal force produced by the first rotating arm. The mass again transfers from the second arm to the first arm after one hundred eighty degrees of circular travel of both arms. At this point, there is a centrifugal force bias in favor of the arm having the masses which continues for another one hundred eighty degrees of arcuate travel, when compared to the prior semicircle traveled. In other words, the net result of the arm having the pair of masses is an imbalanced centrifugal force during half of the circular path of both arms.

The resultant imbalance may be transmitted into a linear uni-directional component of force by mounting both rotating arms on a rail or frictional wheel carriage.

Usage of two synchronized sets of counterrotating arms to a leg connecting both axes of rotation, necessarily eliminates the deflecting component of the centrifugal force along the axes of the counter rotating arms. In this case, the rail and frictional wheel carriage would not be required since a true linear force has been fashioned.

It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide a device that efficiently converts centrifugal force from rotating members into linear force and linear movement.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide a device useable as a source of motivation for any vehiclar means by the employment of rotational motion which is converted into linear motion.

It is yet another object of the present invention to provide an imbalanced centrifugal force in a given semicircle of the rotational cycle of an object and the usage of the linear components of the centrifugal force produced to propel a vehicle.

It is another object of the present invention to combine the effects of a plurality of devices producing a biased centrifugal force to cause linear motion without the necessity of frictional engagement of the vehicle with a surface of travel.

The invention possesses other objects and advantages as concerns particular features and characteristics, thereof, which will become apparent as the specification continues. For a better understanding of the invention, reference is made to the following description.


FIG. 1 is a plan view of the device with the counter rotating arms shown in phantom at the transfer points.

FIG. 2 is sectional view taken along line 2–2 of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a broken sectional view taken along line 3–3 of FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a broken side elevational view of the mass transfer mechanism in the activated position.

FIG. 5 is broken sectional view taken along line 5–5 of FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 is a broken sectional view taken along line 6–6 of FIG. 4.

FIG. 7 is a broken side elevational view of the mass transfer mechanism in the deactivated position.

FIG. 8 is a broken sectional view taken along line 8–8 of FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 is a broken sectional view taken along line 9–9 of FIG. 7.

FIG. 10 is a broken sectional view taken along line 10–10 of FIG. 7.

FIG. 11 is a fragmentary sectional view showing a pair of devices in side-by-side connection.

FIG. 12 is a schematic view showing a pair of devices in side-by-side connection, with the connecting leg in phantom.


With reference to the drawings, the device or apparatus as a whole is depicted in its entirety by reference character 10. FIG. 1 shows the device 10 which includes a first arm 12 and a second arm 14 which counter rotate with respect to one another about an axle 16, FIGS. 1 and 2. The circular paths of the arms 12 and 14 lie in parallel planes such that the arms are positioned in overlying alignment twice during the rotational cycle of both arms 12 and 14. As shown by FIG. 1, in partial phantom, the alignment of the two arms takes place one hundred and eighty degrees ( apart and these positions are denoted as the “transfer points I and II”, a fuller explanation of which will be hereinafter provided.

In the present embodiment, the device 10 is contemplated for use on a surface, but the device may be employed for any method of travel including travel in water, air and space media. As shown, the device 10 travels on a rail track 18 by the use of wheels rotating about spindles 22 that support frame 24, via forks 26, which are fixed by attached to frame 24 and spindle 22. The frame 24 secures to axle 16 by the use of flange 28 by any suitable means, such as welding.

With reference to FIG. 2, driving shaft 30 turns by the energy derived from any source of power (not shown). Block portion 32 and bearings 34 support shaft 30 to allow smooth axial turning of the shaft, well known in the art. Shaft 30 includes a miter gear 36, on the end nearest axle 16, which meshingly engages bevel gear 38 integral with bushing 40, which is free to slide about the bearing surface 52 circumferentially affixed to axle 16. Flanges 42 and 44 afix to arm 14 such that the rotation of bushing 40 rotates arm 14 about the axis of axle 16. The upper end of bushing 40 connects to bevel gear 46 which meshingly engages miter gear 48. Stud 50 fixedly engages axle 16 and bearing 54 circumscribes the stud 50. Miter gear 48, thus rotates about the fixed axis of stud 50. C-rings 56 and 58 prevent the movement of stud 50 and miter gear 48.

Bevel gear 60 meshingly engages miter gear 48 and rotates in the direction opposite to bevel gear 46. Flange 62, depicted as integral with bevel gear 60, affixes to arm 12 such that arm 12 rotates opposite to arm 14.

One end of arm 12 includes a bearing mount 64 which circumferentially holds shaft 66. Pin 68 positions shaft 66 within bearing 64 which has a seal 70. Miter gear 72 affixes to shoulder 74 which surroundingly engages shaft 66. Miter gear 72 meshingly engages bevel gear 76 and turns shaft 66. Flanges 78 and 80 join to hold bevel gear in a stationary position with respect to miter gear 72. Stiffeners 82 and 84 strengthen the interconnection of flanges 78 and 80 to the frame 24.

Universal joint 86 affixes shaft 66 to shaft 88 which passes through bearing mount 90. Stub 92 affixes to base plate 94 which secures to bearing mount 90. Stub 92 passes through an arcuate slot 96 in arm 12, best depicted in FIG. 3; the purpose of which will be described in detail as the specification continues. The lower end of stub 92 is capped by washer 98 and nut 100. Stub 92 may travel within the confines of arcuate slot 96 subject to dampening by spring 124.

Shaft 88 engages bearing 102 which fits within hub 104 having wings 106 and 108. Bars 110 and 112 affix to wings 106 and 108 respectively on one end and to masses 114 and 116 on the other end. Masses 114 and 116 are preferably of equal size; mass and weight, therefore, balance one another when shaft 88 rotates bars 110 and 112 (which are of equal length) and the masses 114 and 116. The hub 104 also functions to dampen oscillations upon the transfer of one of the weights, as will be discussed in detail hereinafter. Arm 14 has a U-shaped channel 118 between partitions 128 and 129 corresponding in the width dimension to the width of mass 114 or 116. Opening 120 and 122 receive the fingers (not shown) of mass 114 or the fingers of mass 116 (only exemplar finger 130 shown) dependent upon which mass is transferred from arm 12 to arm 14.

Pin 132 rides on cam follower 134 which travels a flexible circular cam on track 136. Cam track 136 is supported by a plurality of blocks, including blocks 138, 140, 142, and 144. Block 140 includes an inclined surface having a handle structure 144 thereattached, such that the circular track 136 may be lowered to the same level at block 140 as it is at block 138.

The mechanism involved in the actual transfer of one of the masses 114 or 116 may be more clearly explained by FIGS. 4-10. As an example, mass 116 may be employed, as depicted in phantom on FIG. 2, as the transferred mass. FIG. 4, showing the mechanism in the activated position, includes bar 112 having a plate 150 which fits into arcuate channel 152. Bar 112 affixes to plate 150. The combination is capable of holding weight 116 while revolving about hub 104. As depicted by FIG. 5, the pin, when elevated by the track 136, runs through partially V-shaped channel 154.

The mass 116 includes two equal portions 156 and 158, each portion respectively enclosed by caps 160 and 162, having a slidable relationship therebetween. Finger 130 of mass portion 158 slides within openings 164 and into slot 120 when the mass 116 transfers from arm 12 to arm 14. Spring means 166 urges mass member 158 away from slot 120 while the movement of pin 132 in channel 154 urges mass member 158 toward slot 120. Mass portion 156 also includes a finger, spring means, and opening arrangement (not shown) identical to mass portion 158 such as finger 130, spring means 166, and opening 164, for use with opening 122 (FIG. 2).

Pin 132 includes a slot 168 and a key 170 in arm 14 to prevent rotation of the pin 132 in the vertical plane during transfer of the mass 116. Mass 114 contains the same mechanism as mass 116 for the purposes of the transfer, from arm 12 to arm 14, and the masses be substituted freely to perform the transfer function to evenly distribute wear and tear and the like.

In operation, the device 10 has two counter rotating arms 12 and 14 that are synchronized to vertically align at two positions within their rotational cycles, where either mass 114 or 116 transfers to and from the first arm 12. As heretofore explained, mass 116 has been arbitrarily chosen, but proper calibration may employ mass 114 in the transfer mechanism herein described.

Power from a source drives driving shaft 30 which turns miter gear 36 and bevel gear 38. Arm 14 affixed to bushing 40 rotates in a plane substantially horizontal to the axis of driving shaft 30. Bevel gear 46 turns miter gear 48 which spins bevel gear 60. Arm 12 attached to flange 62, integral with bevel gear 60, rotates in a plane parallel to the plane of arm 14 and in an opposite direction to the path of rotation of arm 14 through gearing arrangements arms 12 and 14 vertically align at “transfer points I and II”, shown on FIG. 1.

Miter gear 72 and bevel gear 76 rotate shaft 88 and turns masses 114 and 116 in a vertical plane as arm 12 rotates in a horizontal plane. At transfer point I, depicted in FIG. 2, the mass 116 fits between partitions 128 and 129, shown in phantom, of arm 14. At this point, the mass 116 the end of arm 14 has no relative motion therebetween. Just prior to that point, pin 132 enters channel 154 because of the rise in track 136 and spreads portions 156 and 158 apart. Fingers, shown by exemplar finger 130, enter openings 120 and 122, and bar 112 with affixed plate 150 rotates out of arcuate channel 152. Thus, mass 116 has been transferred to arm 14, FIGS. 4-6.

Arm 12 continues its rotation with only mass 114 for one hundred and eighty degrees to “transfer point II”. It should be noted that hub 104 preferably dampens the oscillating motion produced by mass 114 on the arm 12 by being of a weight equal to the combined weight of masses 114 and 116. Likewise partitions 128 and 129 should be equal in weight to hub 104, such that the sum of the weight of masses 116 and partitions 128 and 129 equals the sum of the weight hub 104 and weight 114. Thus, the device 10 is balanced during the portion of the cycle of arm 12 between the “transfer points I and II”.

With reference to FIG. 3, the stub 92 bears on spring 124 such that the oscillation force of mass 114 on arm 12 is dampened in one direction to help smooth the motion of arm 12 as it rotates.

When “transfer point II” is reached, the transfer mechanism reverses, FIGS. 7-10. Pin 132 lowers from channel 154 because of the position of track 134. Fingers, shown by exemplar 130 remove from openings 120 and 122. Plate 150 engages portions 158 and 160, FIG. 9, and mass 116 again rotates on bar 112 with mass 114.

The mechanical components of device 10 may be sealed in a vacuum with shaft 30 and handle structure 148 extending therethrough to reduce the effect of air friction on the rotating arms.

When arm 12 includes both masses 114 and 116, axle 16 receives a force along arm 12. This specifically occurs counterclockwise between “transfer point II” and “transfer point I”. This linear force may be broken into two component forces, one in the direction of the arrow 172 and the other in a force horizontally disposed. The horizontal force, a deflecting force, is absorbed by the rigidity of rail track 18. Thus, device 10 moves along track 18 in the direction of the arrow 172. It should be noted that a plurality of pairs of arms identical to arms 12 and 14 may be placed on axle 16 to create a steady force in the direction of arrow 172. The device 10 alone will produce a pulse force during the time arm 12 travels from transfer point II to transfer point I. The transferring mechanism may be deactivated by pulling handle mechanism 148 and therefore the lower portion of bock 140. The sliding of the upper and lower portions of block 140 on surface 146, lower arm track 136 such that pin 132 does not enter channel 154 and transferring of mass 116 does not occur. Similarly the raising of track 136 one hundred and eighty degrees from block 146 would reverse the transfer mechanism such that the device 10 would travel in a direction opposite to arrow 172. In other words, raising the track 136 to activate pin 132 opposite block 140 would brake device 10 moving in the direction of arrow 172 or cause device 10, at rest, to move in a direction opposite to arrow 172.

Device 10 may be used with an identical device to eliminate the need for rail track 18 and its equivalent. Applicant hereby incorporates, by reference, the specification of his U.S. Pat. No. 3,683,707, issued Aug. 15, 1972, wherein applicant describes the cancellation of horizontal forces. In particular, column 8, lines 9-38, describes the resolution of forces in the Y axis and cancellation of the forces in the X axis.

By analogy, a set of devices identical to device 10 may be placed together, preferably side-by-side, with a leg 174 connecting identical axles 16 such that identical arms 12 are located at transfer point I on the first device and transfer point II on the second device FIGS. 11 and 12.

While in the foregoing specification embodiments of the invention have been set forth in considerable detail for purposes of making a complete disclosure of the invention, it will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that numerous changes may be made in such details without departing from the spirit and principles of the invention.

Gravitational Spacecraft by Fran de Aquino

Written By: admin - May• 19•10

Fran De Aquino
(Maranhao State University, Brazil)

It is demonstrated that gravitational and inertial masses are correlated by an electromagnetic factor. From the practical point of view this is very important because it means the possibility of electromagnetic control of the gravity. Some theoretical consequences of the correlation are:

incorporation of Mach’s principle into Gravitation Theory;
new relativistic expression for the mass ;
the generalization of Newton’s second law for the motion;
the deduction of the differential equation for entropy directly from the Gravitation Theory.

Another fundamental consequence of the mentioned correlation is that, in specific ultra-high energy conditions, the  gravitational and electromagnetic fields can be described by the same Hamiltonian, i.e., in these circumstances, they are unified ! Such conditions can have occurred inclusive in the Initial Universe, before the first spontaneous breaking of symmetry.

JLN Labs
March 21th, 2000
Email :
JLN Lab’s eGroup at : if you are a team member.

The Gravitational SpaceCraft from Fran De Aquino
Warping to the deep space…by

Fran De Aquino

== g-craftpn.jpg

It is known that photons have null inertial mass (mi = 0 ) and that they do not absorb others photons (U = 0 ). So , if we put mi = 0 and U = 0 in Eq.(1.04), the result is mg = 0. Therefore photons have null gravitational mass. Let us consider a point source of radiation with power P , frequency f and radiation density at distance r given by D = P /4p r2

Due to the null gravitational mass of the photons, it must be possible to build a shield of photons around the source, which will impede the exchange of gravitons between the particles inside the shield and the rest of the Universe. The shield begins at distance rs from the source where the radiation density is such that there will be a photon in opposition to each incident graviton . This critical situation occurs when D = hf 2 / Sg , where Sg is the geometric cross section of the graviton. Thus rs is given by the relation, rs = (rg / f )( P/h)1/2

== eq1u104.gif

We then see that the ELF radiation are the most appropriate to produce the shield. It can be easily shown that, if f << 1mHz , the radiation will traverse any particle . It is not difficult to see that in this case, there will be “clouds” of photons around the particles inside the shield. Due to the null gravitational mass of the photons , these “clouds” will impede the exchange of gravitons between the particle inside the “cloud” and the rest of the Universe. Thus, we can say that the gravitational mass of the particle will be null with respect to the Universe, and that the space-time inside the shield (out of the particles) becomes flat or euclidean . It is clear that the space-time which the particles occupies remains non-euclidean.

In an euclidean space-time the maximum speed of propagation of the interactions is infinite

== cinf.gif

because , as we know, the metrics becomes from Galilei.

Therefore, the interactions are instantaneous . Thus , in this space-time the speed of photons must be infinite, simply because they are the quanta of the electromagnetic interaction. So, the speed of photons will be infinite inside the shield.

On the other hand , the new relativistic expression for mass, Eq.(2.06),

== equ206.gif

shows that a particle with null gravitational mass isn’t submitted to the increase of relativistic mass, because under these circumstances its gravitational mass doesn’t increase with increasing velocity .i.e., it remains null independently of the particle’s velocity. In addition , the gravitational potential

-== phigm.gif

or the particle will be null and, consequently , the component

== goophi.gif

of the metric tensor will be equal to -1.

Thus , we will have

== ds2goo.gif

where t’ is the time in a clock moving with the particle , and ds2 = c2 dt2 where t is the time indicated by a clock at rest ( dx = dy = dz = 0 ).

From the combination of these two equations we conclude that t’ = t .This means that the particle will be not more submitted to the relativistic effects predicted in Einstein’s theory. So, it can reach and even surpass the speed of light . We can imagine a spacecraft with positive gravitational mass qual to (m) kg , and negative gravitational mass ( see System-G in appendix A) equal to – (m – 0.001) kg . It has a shield of photons , as above mentioned. If the photons, which produce the shield , radiate from the surface of the spacecraft , then the space-time that it occupies remains non-euclidean ,and consequently , for an observer in this space-time , the total gravitational mass of the spacecraft, will be

== mg001.gif

. Therefore , if its propulsion system produces F=10N (only) the spacecraft acquires acceleration

== aequalf.gif

( see Eq.(2.05)).

== equ205.gif

Furthermore, due to the “cloud” of photons around the spacecraft its gravitational interaction with the Universe will be null , and therefore, we can say that its gravitational mass will be null with respect to the Universe. Consequently, the inertial forces upon the spacecraft will also be null, in agreement with Eq.2.05 ( Mach’s principle ).This means that the spacecraft will lose its inertial properties . In addition, the spacecraft will can reach and even surpass the speed of light because , as we have seen , a particle with null gravitational mass will be not submitted to the relativistic effects.

Fran De Aquino, April 20th, 2000

JLN Labs

The System-G from Fran De Aquino : Engineering the device…


Fran De Aquino and Steve Burns

March 17th, 2000

The System-G experiment has been performed successfuly by Fran De Aquino on January 27th, 2000 at the Physics Department of Maranhao State University in Brazil.

In the System-G torus, the ELF energy generated by the dipole antenna must be fully absorbed the atoms of the annealed iron lamina. The ELF energy is done by this equation below :

== sysg104.gif

The curve below, shows that a System-G weight ( 35 Kg ) can be nullified at 60Hz with a current of 400 Ampere.

== sysgcur.gif

The use of the power grid for the basic System-G experiment has been conducted easily by using the power grid frequency ( 60 Hz, in Brazil ), this was energy consumming ( about 11 KW ). But for improving the efficiency of the whole apparatus, Power Input Vs weight lifted, its seems much adapted to use a lower frequency than previously for the ELF signal as shown on the table below :

== sysgpwr2.gif

You notice that, to levitate a 100 Kg weight apparatus,
at 60 Hz we need 61 KW and for the same results, only 632 W is required at 1 Hz.

== sysgpwr.gif

== sysg5hz.gif

You may notice on the diagram above that only 1460 Watts are required to levitate 50 Kg at a frequency of 5 Hz…

== elfaiseir.gif

The plot above, shows the phase velocity reduced wavelength for an ELF antenna
in seawater (published by the US Navy in 1960’s), in air and also in a pure iron powder (for the System-G).

== sysgcross.gif

=== fdafrqexp.gif


The System-G Equations Solver

v 1.05

by J-L Naudin


Right Click / Save

Notes : You must have the JavaScript enabled in your Internet browser. This very helpful tool will allow you to find quickly the good setup for building your own System-G. You need only to enter the specifications of your components in the green areas and the solver will give you the calculated values in the red areas. The preset values are the parameters used by Fran De Aquino during his historical System-G experiment on January 27th, 2000, so you will able to check by yourself that the calculated values are close to the experimental values measured by Fran De Aquino.When all your parameters are entered, you need only to press the “Calculate” button . To restart again the calculation, the “Restore” button will reset all the datas fields to their initial values.Good Engineering,

Jean-Louis Naudin

Gravity Control by Means of Electromagnetic Field Through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressureby

Fran De Aquino

[ PDF ]

A Gravitational Shielding Based on ZnS:Ag Phosphor

byFran De Aquino

[ PDF ]

It was shown that there is a practical  possibility of gravity control on elelectroluminescent materials. We present here a type of G-SHielding based on an EL phosphor, namely zinc sulfide doped with silver ( ZnS:Ag ) which can reduce the cost of the G-Motor previously presented…

How to Extract Energy Directly from a Gravitational Field

byFran De Aquino

[ PDF ]

Gravity is related to gravitational mass of the bodies. According to the weak form of Einstein’s General Relativity equivalence principle, the gravitational and inertial masses are equivalent. However recent calculations (gr-qc/9910036) have revealed that they are correlated by an adimensional factor, which depends on the incident radiation upon the particle. It was shown that there is a direct correlation between the radiation absorbed by the particle and its gravitational mass, independently of the inertial mass. This finding has fundamental consequences to Unified Field Theory and Quantum Cosmology. It was also shown that only in the absence of electromagnetic radiation this factor becomes equal to one and that, in specific electromagnetic conditions, it can be reduced, nullified or made negative. This means that there is the possibility of control of the gravitational mass by means of the incident radiation. This unexpected theoretical result was recently confirmed by an experiment (gr-qc/0005107). Consequently there is a strong evidence that the gravitational forces can be reduced, nullified and inverted by means of electromagnetic radiation. This means that , in practice we can produce gravitational binaries, and in this way to extract energy from a gravitational field. Here we describe a process by which energy can be extracted directly from any site of a gravitational field.

Professor Fran De Aquino’s Webpage

Physics Department, Maranhao State University

For several years, physicist Fran De Aquino worked as Senior-Researcher at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais – INPE (National Institute for Space Research – INPE , Brazil) (INPE Registration Number 02844 CRN, SIAPE Registration Number 0024730). He was also Director of the INPE’s Space Observatory in the city of São Luís, since the installation of this observatory until 1997.

Currently, physicist Fran De Aquino is a professor at the Universidade Estadual do Maranhão- UEMA (State University of Maranhao, Brazil), (UEMA Registration Number 5155). He also works as Consultant in Science & Technology for international companies. Fran De Aquino’s publications list includes several scientific articles and books.

His research involves many relevant aspects of Gravitation and Cosmology. After thirty years of research, professor De Aquino discovered that the gravity can be quantized, starting from the generalization of the known action function. In discovering the quantization of gravity, Fran De Aquino made true an old dream of the Quantum Physicists – to obtain a Quantum Theory for Gravity.

This Quantum Theory of Gravity unifies Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity with the Quantum Theory and, furthermore, it leads to an equation of correlation between gravitational mass and the inertial mass, which opens doors for gravity control technologies and the G ENERGY , the energy of the future that possibly it will change the paradigms of energy generation, transportation and telecommunications.

The theory shows that there is a revalidation of the strong equivalence principle, and consequently Einstein’s equations are preserved. Thus, De Aquino’s Quantum Theory of Gravity does not invalidate Einstein’s Theory, on the contrary, it just complements this theory, in such a way as Einstein’s theory has complemented Newton’s theory.

The Einstein’s equations are deduced directly from De Aquino’s theory. Moreover, a generalized equation for inertial forces is obtained , which incorporates the Mach’s principle into Gravitation, explainning therefore the origin of inertia, and yielding a new expression for gravitational forces which includes the Newton’s attraction law, and shows that the graviton must have spin 1 and not 2. The theory also allows the deduction of the Entropy’s differential equation; the Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field and the reciprocal fine structure constant. It is also possible to explain the Inflation Period and the Hidden Matter, without assuming the existence of vacuum fluctuations. Similarly, it is possible to obtain the Casimir force, whithout assuming the existence of zero-point field. Another fundamental consequence of De Aquino’s theory is the possibility of control of the gravitational mass. In addition, De Aquino’s Quantum Theory of Gravity shows that, in specific ultra-high energy conditions, the gravitational and electromagnetic fields can be described by the same Hamiltonian, i.e., in these circumstances, they are unified. Such conditions might have occurred inclusively in the Initial Universe, before the first spontaneous breaking of Symmetry. Therefore, this Kinetic approach to Quantum Gravity will allow us to understand some crucial matters in Quantum Cosmology, including the early stages of the Big Bang. For some physicists, this theory might be it the Holy Graal of Modern Physics because it can complete the unification of all fundamental laws of Physics.
Now, it is possible for the first time to write down a single equation (Eq.1 of Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity. See T-shirt below) that can explain all the laws of physics( including the Einstein’s equations), all the forces of nature – the proverbial “theory of everything”. This grand unified theory comprhends Philosophy, God (including feminine aspects), and the Soul. It is not restricted only to the material world it includes not only force particles and matter particles, not only general relativity and Quantum Gravity, but also a theory of consciousness. ( Record # 595902 )

Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity

byFran De Aquino

[ PDF ]

Abstract: Starting from the action function, we have derived a theoretical background that leads to the quantization of gravity and the deduction of a correlation between the gravitational and inertial masses, which depends on the kinetic momentum of the particle. We show that there is a reaffirmation of the strong equivalence principle and, consequently, Einstein’s equations are preserved. In fact, such equations are deduced here directly from this approach to Gravity. Moreover, we have obtained a generalized equation for inertial forces, which incorporates the Mach’s principle into Gravitation. Also, we have deduced the equation of Entropy; the Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field and the reciprocal fine structure constant. It is possible to deduce the expression of the Casimir force and also to explain the Inflation Period and the Missing Matter, without assuming the existence of vacuum fluctuations. This new approach to Gravity will allow us to understand some crucial matters in Cosmology.

The Journal of New Energy
(Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, ISSN: 1086-8259)

Gravity Control by Means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure

byFran De Aquino

Abstract : It is shown that the gravity acceleration just above a chamber filled with gas or plasma at ultra-low pressure can be strongly reduced by applying an Extra Low-Frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field across the gas or the plasma. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is related to recent discovery of quantum correlation between gravitational mass and inertial mass. According to the theory samples hung above the gas or the plasma should exhibit a weight decrease when the frequency of the electromagnetic field is decreased or when the intensity of the electromagnetic field is increased. This Gravitational Shielding Effect is unprecedented in the literature and can not be understood in the framework of the General Relativity. From the technical point of view, there are several applications for this discovery; possibly it will change the paradigms of energy generation, transportation and telecommunications.


1. Gravity Control Cell (GCC)

2. Gravitational Motor

3. Gravitational Spacecraft

4. Decreasing of inertial forces on the Gravitational Spacecraft.

5.Gravity Control inside the Gravitational Spacecraft.

6. Gravitational Thrusters.

7. Artificial Atmosphere surround the Gravitational Spacecraft.

8. Gravitational Lifter.

9. High Power Electromagnetic Bomb (A new type of E-bomb).

10. Gravitational Press of Ultra-High Pressure.

11. Generation and Detectation of Gravitational Radiation.

12. Quantum Gravitational Antennas. Quantum Transceivers.

13. Instantaneous Interstellar Communications

14.Wireless Electric Power Transmission using Quantum Gravitational Antennas.

15. Method and Device using GCCs for obtaining images of Imaginary Bodies.

The Gravity Control Cell

A device called, the Gravity Control Cell, which has the property of reducing, to annul, to invert and to intensify the intensity of the local gravity, has been developed starting from the discovery of the quantum correlation between the gravitational mass and inertial mass published in the article ” Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity “, Copyright © 2002-2008 by Fran De Aquino, available at: arXiv – physics/0212033. In this article, it was shown that any body submitted to the action of an electromagnetic field has its gravitational mass reduced and that the gravity acceleration in any traverse direction to the body is reduced at the same proportion in which the gravitational mass of the body it was reduced. According to this principle, here called of General Principle of Gravity Control, the change in the gravitational mass of the body, and in the gravity acceleration in any transverse direction to the body, is directly proportional to the product of the refraction index by the density of electromagnetic energy applied upon the body, and inversely proportional to the mass density of the body (q.v. “Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity”). The use of gas or plasma at ultra-low pressure in the Gravity Control Cells elapses from the fact that the gases or plasmas have low mass density and, as smaller the smaller pressure also the mass density of the gas or plasma. The Gravity Control Cell is a device absolutely unprecedented in the literature. From the technological viewpoint, there are several applications for this invention; possibly it will change the paradigms of the energy generation ( G ENERGY ), transportation and telecommunications. As shown in the article “Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure”, Copyright © 2007 by Fran De Aquino, available at: arXiv – physics/0701091, the Gravity Control Cells can be used to convert gravitational(G) energy into rotational mechanical energy. Thus, starting from this Gravitational Motor it is possible to get electric energy by means of a conventional electric generator coupled to the Gravitational Motor. The Gravity Control Cells can also be used to yield thrust. In this case the thruster system, called of Gravitational Thruster can produce several Kilonewtons. These Gravitational Thrusters can be used as basic elements of propulsion in the most of transport systems, and certainly they will have applications in the most several industrial processes; this technology probably will find several applications in other areas of the human activity. They can still be used in the construction of a Gravitational Press of Ultra-high Pressure, as detailed in the article “Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure “. In aerospace spacecrafts (Gravitational Spacecrafts) they will have a lot of applications, for example, to produce artificial gravity inside the spacecraft. As a consequence of General Principle of Gravity Control, and of the advent of the “Gravity Control Cells” arises then a new concept of spacecraft and aerospace flight, it also appears a new benefit for the area of the telecommunications with the possibility of building transmitters and receivers whose operation are based on the method of gravity control here described. These systems can be also projected for wireless electric power transmission. (q.v. “Gravity Control by means of Electromagnetic Field through Gas or Plasma at Ultra-Low Pressure”)…

A New Approach To The System-G Test by Fran De Aquino Generalizes All Electrogravitational Force Tests

byJerry E. Bayles
Electrogravitational Research Project
November 09, 2001


Recently I have analyzed the torus test done by Fran De Aquino that showed a significant weight loss according to his published results. My recent analysis of his test involves the  quantum aspect of uncertainty rather than the extreme low frequency electromagnetic absorption of energy by iron atoms as proposed in his paper, “Gravitation and Electromagnetism; Correlation and Grand Unification,” gr-qc/9910036.

It is an established  fact that macroscopic systems cannot be expected to exhibit quantum effects since the uncertainty associated with a large mass is very small as is shown by the following equation:

m = —————    (Assume the mass to be several kilograms.)
2*pi *dv*dr

h = Planks constant, dv is the uncertainty in the velocity and dr is the uncertainty in radius all in S. I. units.

Therefore, it is very unlikely that your car will ‘leak’ out of the garage due to a quantum action unexpectedly! However, on the quantum scale of a single atom, uncertainty really does rule since absorption and emission occur via quantum ‘bits’ of energy. Albert Einstein established this fact (circa 1905) when he described this action to explain the photoelectric effect: it was not the amount of radiation that caused electron emission from a metal but the frequency. The higher the frequency, the more energy the electron absorbed and the faster it was ejected from the metal. Thus was established the famous equation E = hf where E is the energy related to the absorption or emission while (f) is the related frequency and (h) is Plank’s constant.

My Analysis:

I propose that what is occurring in Fran’s torus test is a large increase in the spin  and magnetic moment uncertainty of the iron atoms. Thus, a phase change occurs related directly to the spin uncertainty of the electrons in the iron atoms. This phase change works to reduce the electrogravitational action force…

3. Quantization of Velocity ( c the Universal Reference Speed)

4. Quantization of Time (quantized spacetime—space and time being granular, not continuous, at its smallest scales)

5. Correlation Between Gravitational and Inertial Masses

6. Generalization of Lorentz’s Force

7. Gravittoelectromagnetic fields and Gravitational shielding

8. Gravitational Effects produced by ELF radiation upon the electric current

9. Magnetic Fields affect gravitational mass and the momentum

10. Gravitational Motor

11. Gravitational Mass and Earthquakes

12.The Strong Equivalence Principle

13. Incorporation of the Mach’s Principle into Gravitation Theory

14. Deduction of the Equations of General Relativity

15. Gravitons: Gravitational Forces are also Gauge forces

16. Deduction of Entropy Equation starting from the Gravity Theory

17. Unification of the Electromagnetic and Gravitational Fields

18. Elementary Quantum of Matter

19. The Casimir Force is a gravitational effect related to the Uncertainty Principle

20. The Shape of the Universe and Maximum speed of Tachyons

21. The Hidden Mass and explanation for red-shift anomalies

22. The Expanding Universe is accelerating and not decelerating

23. Gravitational and Inertial Masses of the Photon

24. What causes the fundamental particles to have masses?

25. Electron’s imaginary masses

26. Transitions to the Imaginary space-time

27. Superparticles ( hypermassive Higgs bosons) and Big-Bang

28. Deduction of Reciprocal Fine Structure Constant and the Uncertainty Principle

29. The Inflation Period

30. The Origin of the Universe

31. A Solution for the Black Hole Information Paradox.

32. A Creator’s need

33. The Origin of Gravity and Genesis of the Gravitational Energy

34. Explanation for the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10

35. New type of interaction

36. Allais effect explained

Transformer Supplemental Information
So Professor Aquino used a Transformer, which was designed to
deliver a maximum Power of 2886 Watt, if it was necessary.
But he used only the 41,86% of the Maximum Power of the
Transformer, which it was able to deliver to the matched Load (
Torus Antenna ).
So how did he manage the Power from the Transformer?
It is known, even in welding Transformer, that the Power can be
adjust by the core of the Transformer. If the core is all inside
the Transformer coils, then the Power is maximum to the Secondary
coil .If the core is half inside the Transformer coils, then the
Power in the Secondary is half also ( if I am not wrong ).
Half the Power, does not mean half the Voltage, because the
division of the turns in Primary to Secondary, does not change and
it is 12/2.When we measure to the ends of the Secondary we measure
and the voltage on the impedance of the Secondary of the
Transformer.That means:
, Polar Sec Sec Polar U U I Z U is measured by the
= − ⋅
So the voltage of the secondary does not change, but only the
Polar Voltage is changed because of the running current, through
the impedance of the secondary.So without Load to the Secondary,
the Polar Voltage is equal to the Secondary voltage.The above fact
is known for the batteries and the Power Supplies.
So we must calculate what was the impedance of the secondary the
time that the Transformer was delivering 1208,10 Watt.Then we have
the following:
1 1
2 2
2 2
12 220 36,6 ,
2 6 rms Sec
n U U V V where U U
n U
= = ⇒ = = =
( )
sec r
2 r ( )
( )
rms Sys G Gravity Shielding
rms Sys G Gravity Shielding
rms Sys G Gravity Shielding
= ⇒
− ⋅
Now for:
( )
144,95 102,5
2 2
rms Sys G Gravity Shielding
I I A = = 
2 36,6 0,115 r U= V and R= OHM
sec sec Z0,242 OHM or Z242 mOHM
This impedance is almost two times the Radiation Resistance of the
Torus Antenna.
Now what means by all that.
It means that we can use any almost welding Transformer to drive
the Antenna.
The most of the classic Welding Transformers have a secondary
voltage between 20-40 Volt rms and an impedance in the secondary
between 50mOHM to 300mOHM if the Core is totally inside the
coils.( Means Full Power )
So the Transformer can be any Welding Transformer from 2000VA and
beyond as I can calculate.I have a Welding Transformer of 3000VA
with a secondary voltage of 20 Volts rms.I have this Transformer
for some years.That means, when core is adjust for full power, the
secondary has an impedance of 133mOHM almost.Because 133mOHM is
almost 115mOHM as the Antenna, the maximum delivered power will be
almost 3000VA/4=750 Watt.Means that the total weight of System G
will be reduced to almost 16,5Kgr, by my diagram.
But if we use a 2000VA or 3000VA transformer, we will not see the
null of the total weight of System G, but a less effect .Sure it
will loose some kgr. But this is and the proof, if all the other
are right, that Aquino’s experiment works.
And more it is not needed as conclusion to match the impedance of
the secondary with the Antenna.
So to see a decrease of about 1Kgr, we must have almost a current
of 40A/sqrt(2)=28,28Arms, running trough the Torus Antenna of 115
I know I did not use any calculations about the losses of Power in
wires and the core. This is not a problem, because the wires have
some microOHM resistance and all the cores today, have layers of
Iron, to reduce the losses, by the eddy currents. So the losses
will be some Watts and not important to consider.
The Transformer is not the problem, because we can find it, very
easy in a store, which has General Electrological equipment and
Steps to consider for a right construction:
• Right scheme of the Antenna wires.
• The Iron powder must has the required or almost the required
conductivity and relative Magnetic Permeability.
• The test of the Antenna Radiation Resistance with the Iron
Powder and the cables, can be done out of the Shield Iron, in
any plastic container. This is because the container does not
take place in the Radiation Resistance, but only the Iron
Powder and the Wires.
• When we would have managed a very close Radiation Resistance
or double or three times the required, we continue to the next
difficult step, which is the Shield Iron, with the High
Relative Magnetic Permeability. A point to consider is the
powder not to be oxidized because it will decrease the
• Now here is the difficult step.With some way we must find pure
Iron or Mumetal with the value of 25000 of Relative Magnetic
Permeability. If we find 20000, I think it will not be a
problem. By my investigation we have all the right formulas to
adjust the experiment to work even with low efficiency, than
the described by Aquino.
I hope my investigation to become a very good guide for somebody
to achieve the experiment.
Best Regards
John Xydous
Electronic Engineer

Przemyslaw LAGIEWKA, et al. Shock Absorber

Written By: admin - May• 14•10

Abstract — The invention relates to a device for transforming kinetic energy, comprising a first body (2), which may be displaced from a starting position to an end position as a result of an external force (F) and at least one second body (7) mounted such as to rotate, coupled to the first body (2), whereby a longitudinal displacement of the first body (2) drives the second body (7) in rotation, such that the first body is braked.

Energy Absorber uses inertial principles to eliminate inertia

Energy Absorber

n November 1998 in the local stadium, in the presence of hundreds of people including representatives of media from the all country, together with his collaborators,  Przemyslaw Lagiewka demonstrated the prototype of an unusual bumper. This showed what, was so unusual that continually acknowledged as impossible.

A small Fiat 126p, going 45 km per hour, was driven into a concrete wall. The bumper was not damaged. The driver wore no seatbelts. The inertial reaction, which should have thrown him onto the hood, did not ocur. The stopping distance was only 16 centimetres. Impossible? Yet hundreds of people in, and  the stadium, and millions more on television. The use in all vehicles of the absorber of the energy, “Ecollision”, can radically improve automobile safety.

Lagiewka says, “The technical idea behind my buffer can be used in very many practical solutions. Another invention which I showed experimentally, is the brake. Connected to the axis on a Mercedes, the car stopped in one-quarter of the distance usually required”.

I had a short conversation with the manager of the Chair of the Mechanics and Energy-Devices AGH in Cracow, with the professor with Stanislaus Gumu??.:

– What you feels about the Lagiewka buffer ?

– This is a very original solution transforming the rectilinear motion into rotatory, thanks to which it succeeded to limit radically results of the collision of two bodies. This experiment recommends however to us, to research workers, many practical and theoretical problems.

Read more at Rex Research here…

Przemyslaw LAGIEWKA, et al. Shock Absorber

Przemyslaw LAGIEWKA, et al. Shock Absorber

Bob Lazar and the Gravity Wave

Written By: admin - May• 14•10

Bob Lazar and otherworldly propulsion. See his Video in our Video Section..


Written By: admin - May• 14•10

Prototype DeviceAbstract
The present study develops a new propulsion mechanism
based on the inertial force. This mechanism is not a
pushing away of the land surface but is based on a
pulsating lateral inertial force arising from a by shaking
mass, and through the difference between the friction
coefficient equivalent according to the direction on the
ground surface. The principle of the propulsion
mechanism is analyzed theoretically and it is proven that
continuous locomotion actually can be induced. Through
locomotion tests using the produced prototype robot, it is
proven that the present propulsion mechanism functions
in practice.

Prof.Dr.Engg. Tadao Kagiwada, Asst.Prof.Dr. Engg Hiroyuki Harada and
B. Engg Hiroshi Yoshikawa
Laboratory of Product-Oriented Design, Division of Mechanical Science
Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University
North-13 West-8, Kita-ku, J-060-8628 Sapporo

Link to the PDF here…

The Secrets of Inertial Propulsion- PDF

Written By: admin - May• 14•10
Inertial propulsion device

Inertial propulsion device by

A novel method and device for self-contained inertial vehicular propulsion is presented, comprising a tandem mechanical frequency modulated oscillator operating in the complex cartesian grid plane using the combined effort of linear and rotational inertial reluctance contained in the mass of flywheels. The flywheels are having parallel axial orientation, opposite free wheeling rotation and opposite alternate cyclic linear free flowing reciprocal motion in the direction of vehicular travel by means of a linear to rotational coupled motion. The linear to rotational-coupled motion accomplishes the cyclic realignment of the flywheel motion to combine the linear and rotational motion into one vector sum propulsion impulse effort. The free flowing linear inertial reluctance of the flywheel mass is used as the propulsion motivating impact momentum by dual reciprocal separation and the freewheeling rotational inertial reluctance of the flywheel’s mass is used to absorb impulses contrary to the vehicular motion. Kinetic energy is accumulated reciprocally into each flywheel employing integral motor-generators rotors contained within the flywheels and an attached variable rotational-to-reciprocating transmission is directing the accumulated kinetic energy reciprocally into the device in direction of vehicular travel and reciprocally into the free flowing linear and rotational flywheel mass.

Click here for the link to the PDF… Courtesy of PDFGenie (by Google)

Author: Gottfried J. Gutsche, Web site:

Werner Von Braun’s 50 year old Secret!

Written By: admin - May• 14•10

Werner von Braun-color-Marshall-TV

The secret of gravity and inertia themselves … revealed as a true “anti-gravity effect” — somehow operating on Explorer I … radically affecting its very orbit!

That, Explorer I’s actual trajectory, unambiguously (and most disturbingly) seemed to violate two basic laws of 20th Century Physics, immediately after launch–

Read More here…

Part Two Here….

The always interesting and informative: Enterprise

Inertial Propulsion Engine- A working Dean Drive

Written By: admin - May• 14•10
A Working Dean Drive Model

A Working Dean Drive Model

Patent secrets of inertial propulsion Dean Space Drive Impulse engine loses 70% weight and displaces itself as pendulum with centrifugal force thrust.

Steve Hampton, author, inventor and Boulder Colorado resident has perfected the Dean Drive possibly making air and space travel super-efficient.

For 100 years – and as many patents – inventors have been working
on reactionless thrust “space drive” to achieve anti-gravity

Finally, a PRACTICAL space drive

In 1980 while going through my father’s old magazines, I found an article about the Dean Drive.[1] Fascinated, I showed the piece to my long-time friend Steve Hampton who became engrossed with the concept. First patented in 1959, Norman L. Dean’s contraptions propelled themselves using the centrifugal force of spinning weights.[2] Such “anti-gravity” machines appeared to break Newton’s third law of motion and the two resultant conservation laws in physics. However, the long-lost secrets of Dean’s inertial propulsion (IP) system died with the well-known but controversial inventor in late 1972.[3] All that publicly remained of his fantastic impulse engines were a half-dozen magazine articles, two perplexing patents, and lots of conflicting opinions.

Read More: from Steve Hampton’s Excellent Site!

The Thornson Inertial Drive

Written By: admin - May• 14•10
Built from Legos!

Built from Legos

The Thornson drive is composed of eccentric masses which, when rotated properly, causes a cancellation of all forces except in one direction.

Visit J.L. Naudin’s site for more great research