DeanSpaceDrive.org

The Dean System Drive is a self-contained propulsion system not requiring the loss of mass.

LINEAR FORCE MACHINE

Written By: admin - Sep• 11•10

http://www.mtjf.demon.co.uk/modern.htm

NEW PROPULSION UNIT

PROVEN “ANTI-GRAVITY” DEVICE

This is an article describing the above prototype machine, which now needs to be developed into an engine suitable for propelling actual devices such as :- boats, planes, spaceships etc.

This engine could be used to generate a large propulsive thrust resulting in a design suitable for propelling a star ship.

LINEAR FORCE MACHINE

LINEAR FORCE MACHINE

Inertial Navigation

Written By: admin - Sep• 11•10

Inertial Navigation

Kevin J Walchko1
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6200
Dr. Paul A. C. Mason2
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

This paper will discuss the design and implementation of an inertial navigation system (INS) using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and GPS. The INS is capable of providing continuous estimates of a vehicle’s position and orientation. Typically IMU’s are very expensive sensors, however this INS will use a “low cost” version costing only $5,000. Unfortunately with low cost also comes low performance and is the main reason for the inclusion of GPS into the system. Thus the IMU will use accelerometers and gyros to interpolate between the 1Hz GPS positions. All important equations regarding navigation are presented along with discussion. Results are presented to show the merit of the work and highlight various aspects of the INS.

An Introduction to Inertial Navigation

Written By: admin - Jul• 25•10

by A. D. KING, B.Sc., F.R.I.N.,
Marconi Electronic Systems Ltd.

A. D. King joined Ferranti in 1966, initially
working on development of navigation displays
for aircraft, including the Harrier and Tornado.
In 1975 he became Chief Engineer of a group
with responsibility for many inertial navigation
systems including the guidance system for the
Ariane launcher. In 1981 he became manager of
the Company’s gyro business, and in 1989
became Chief Engineer of the Navigation and
Electrooptic Systems Division. Ferranti Defence
Systems was acquired by GEC Marconi in 1990
and is now part of Marconi Electronic Systems.
(Email: [email protected])

inertial_navigation_introduction

Jumping Robot- Inertial Power?

Written By: admin - Jul• 12•10

Amazing Jumping Robot!

We love it when footage of a robot prompts a “holy crap” response from us. This little guy, a product of the Chiba Institute of Technology, uses four rods as a suspension system for jumping. The bulk of the bot can be moved up or down, using its momentum to raise the wheels and jump to the next level. Check out the clip after the break to see how getting down involves a controlled fall as graceful as a dancer. Doctor Light better get cracking on another robot to take this one out when it turns on us.

Jumping Robot

Inertial Mass Separate From Gravitational Mass?

Written By: admin - Jun• 16•10

“The equivalence principle is one of the more fascinating ideas in modern science. It asserts that gravitational mass and inertial mass are identical. Einstein put it like this: the gravitational force we experience on Earth is identical to the force we would experience were we sitting in a spaceship accelerating at 1g. Newton might have said that the m in F=ma is the same as the ms in F=Gm1m2/r^2. … All that changes today with the extraordinary work of Endre Kajari at the University of Ulm in Germany and a few buddies. They show how it is possible to create situations in the quantum world in which the effects of inertial and gravitational mass must be different. In fact, they show that these differences can be arbitrarily large.”

Norman L. Dean (1899-1972) Modified Newtons’ law to bring to clarity the principle of non-simultaneity: paraphrase… equal and opposite reaction ..but not always simultaneous… Admin

Einstein’s statement of the equivalence principle

A little reflection will show that the law of the equality of the inertial and gravitational mass is equivalent to the assertion that the acceleration imparted to a body by a gravitational field is independent of the nature of the body. For Newton’s equation of motion in a gravitational field, written out in full, it is:

(Inertial mass) \cdot (Acceleration) = (Intensity of the gravitational field) \cdot (Gravitational mass).

It is only when there is numerical equality between the inertial and gravitational mass that the acceleration is independent of the nature of the body.

Responding to Mechanical Anti-Gravity- NASA

Written By: admin - May• 20•10

Responding To Mechanical Anti-Gravity

NASA Logo

Click here to read.

The American space agency NASA, receives many requests from  armatures to investigate their new inventions and anti-gravity devices.  So many in fact , that event the Patent office has requested their help when reviewing claims for new anti-gravity devices.

NASA commissioned a report to help clear the air on these and existing devices, their merits and methods of operation. Entitled: Responding to Mechanical Anti gravity is a fascinating look at “inside” what makes the many existing methods work “or not” Read it for your own conclusions.

Click here to read the PDF

Marc G. Millis
Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio
Nicholas E. Thomas
University of Miami, Miami, Florida
Responding to Mechanical Anti-gravity
NASA/TM—2006-214390
December 2006
AIAA–2006–4913

Bruce Dean- blogmaster – DeanSpaceDrive.org.

Various Inertial Navigation Systems

Written By: admin - May• 19•10

STATSINGER
US Pat. 3023617 – Filed Jun 1, 1953 – American Bosch Anna Corporation Filed June 1
Prior instruments based on inertial navigation systems have been proposed but as
far as can be determined, they do not maintain the axes of the

GREENWOOD
US Pat. 2914763 – Filed Nov 5, 1953
A. GREENWOOD, JR., ETAL DOPPLER-INERTIAL NAVIGATION DATA SYSTEM Filed Nov. 5,
1953 3 Sheets-Sheet INVENTOR. /V9/V/9.

MCFEE
US Pat. 2938390 – Filed Apr 30, 1956 – Bell Tele
In certain systems, as for example, in inertial navigation systems, it is
necessary to obtain an indication of the integral sum of each of the several

FREEBAIRN
US Pat. 2978913 – Filed Sep 7, 1956 – North American Aviation
Gyroscopes that are used for inertial navigation must have accuracy, The
reason for this is that in inertial navigation, gyroscope drift rate under

NEWELL
US Pat. 3087333 – Filed Nov 30, 1956 – Sparry Rand Corporation
An inertial navigation computer as claimed in claim for gravity effect on the
velocity An inertial navigation computer for a vehicle having a vehicle

JASPERSON
US Pat. 2961191 – Filed Mar 1, 1957 –
Auto- sextant 9 may take any one of several conventional forms of celestial
trackers, or a combination thereof, including ‘as of inertial navigation. Fig.

PHASE
US Pat. 3164340 – Filed Mar 4, 1957
Typical stable platforms for inertial guidance are described in an article by L
M. Slater and DB Duncan, “Inertial Navigation,” Aeronautical Engineering

COCHARO
US Pat. 2995318 – Filed Apr 26, 1957 – Chance Vought Corporation
Inertial platform control loop FIG. 5 illustrates a conventional inertial
navigator 41 such as but …. etc., in the missile’s inertial navigation system.

TRACK
US Pat. 3028592 – Filed Jun 27, 1957
It is a general object of the present invention to provide a navigation system
having the advantages of both Doppler and inertial systems.

KEARNS
US Pat. 2959347 – Filed Aug 26, 1957 –
In an inertia! navigation system, acceleration is measured with some type of an
instrument. A simplified block diagram version of an inertial navigation

SLATER
US Pat. 2958522 – Filed Nov 12, 1957 – North American Aviation
Typical stable platforms for inertial guidance are described in an article by JM
Slater and DB Duncan, “Inertial Navigation,” Aeronautical Engineering

INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM
US Pat. 2996268 – Filed Nov 25, 1957
(Cl. 244— 14) This invention relates to inertial navigation systems and more
particularly to an improved navigational reference for controlling the flight

CHAPMAN
US Pat. 3143892 – Filed Mar 12, 1958 – American Bosch Arma Corporation
74—5.34) The present invention relates to inertial navigation systems and has
particular reference to an improved inertial platform therefor.

INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR
US Pat. 3027762 – Filed Jun 26, 1958 –
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR. April 3, L. w. TOBIN, JR 3027762 INERTIAL
NAVIGATION

HOLLMANN
US Pat. 3035449 – Filed Aug 25, 1958 – Dres
Accelerometers form the very heart of any inertial navigation system. However,
when they are carried by a vehicle, they primarily produce only acceleration

LINDGREN
US Pat. 3075393 – Filed Dec 5, 1958
In apparatus for automatically leveling the platform of an inertial navigation
system including a pair of closed servo loops each with a natural period of

ELECTRONIC STORAGE FOR ATRAN
US Pat. 3290674 – Filed Mar 27, 1959 – the United States of America as represented by the Secre
(Cl. 343—5) The present invention relates to navigation systems. More
particularly, it relates to an inertial navigation system combined with means
for

DEVICE FOR DETERMINING WIND VELOCITY
US Pat. 3248940 – Filed Apr 29, 1959 –
Instead of a Doppler radar system there may also be used an inertial navigation
system in which the ground speed is calculated

MAGNETIC FIELD RESPONSIVE APPARATUS
US Pat. 2972105 – Filed May 11, 1959 – Space Technology Laboratories
For example, the novel arrangement of the invention may be used to provide an
inertial navigation system. In such an arrangement the apparatus of Fig.

ANDERSON NAVIGATIONAL INSTRUMENTS
US Pat. 3269179 – Filed May 29, 1959 – Min
Inertial navigation of a vehicle requires knowledge of the relative acceleration
of the vehicle with respect to a navigational coordinate system.

SPIN AXIS
US Pat. 3083578 – Filed Aug 31, 1959
The measurement of angular rate of rotation of a body with, respect to inertial
space is an essential -function in such areas as inertialnavigation,

LOPER ETAL INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3198940 – Filed Oct 1, 1959

FIGURE
US Pat. 3057592 – Filed Oct 12, 1959 – Lit
For example, the inertial platform of an inertial navigation system must be
mounted to the inertial platform and also in such a manner that the inertial

EARTH NAVIGATIONAL SYSTEM
US Pat. 3244862 – Filed Nov 16, 1959 – International Telephone and Te
An inertial navigation system comprising rotation sensors in a body producing
pulses representing increments of body rotation in inertial space,

THEISS INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM
US Pat. 3237887 – Filed Nov 27, 1959 – General Motors Corporation
For navigation in inertial or Earth space, it is convenient to establish a
reference coordinate system having a known orientation relative to the fixed

SCHLITT ETAL INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3176524 – Filed Dec 21, 1959
A navigation system containing a stable element 20 including three two-degree-of
-freedom gyroscopes mounted thereon and some three of the axes of said gyros

COMPENSATED TRANSDUCER
US Pat. 3131336 – Filed Jul 13, 1960
The invention is of particular utility when applied as a torquer in instruments
of a stable platform or other type of inertial navigation system.

WILLIAMSON
US Pat. 3114264 – Filed Sep 19, 1960 – General Precision
(Cl. 73—382) The invention relates to instruments for use, for example, in
inertial navigation; and it relates more particularly to a novel and improved

INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3296872 – Filed Oct 4, 1960
greatly increases the degree of isolation from motions of the base as
compared with that which can be obtained in other inertial navigation 45 systems
.

NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3232103 – Filed Dec 8, 1960
For convenience in discussing navigation over the earth, inertial space will be
In prior art inertial navigation systems useful relationships which

PXAPV-PVAPX
US Pat. 3597598 – Filed Mar 17, 1961
inertial navigation system mechanization and a torqued system mechanization,
where it is understood that the term “- torquing” implies the control of

FIG.I. PERISCOPE
US Pat. 3262364 – Filed May 4, 1961
A step toward freeing the submarine from dependence upon celestial observations
has been taken with the development of the “Ship’s Inertial Navigation

DURKEE CONTROL APPARATUS
US Pat. 3273405 – Filed Jun 19, 1961 – Honeywell Inc
However, requirements of inertial navigation systems and other applications are
becoming increasingly exacting and consequently greater accuracy has become

CELESTIAL-INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3214575 – Filed Sep 14, 1961
14, 1961 “y ^ $ CVJ OJ <D cvj 9 * cy ‘X. vO VH SELIGER ETAL 3214575 CELESTIAL-
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM 10 Sheets-Sheet ^ 01 •f.

INERTIAL PLATFORM OPERATIVE IN EITHER THE STRAPPED-DOWN OR GIMBAL MODE AS …
US Pat. 3310876 – Filed Oct 30, 1961 – United Aircraft Corporation
A navigation system for a space vehicle comprising an inertial measurement unit
including a plurality of gyros mounted rigidly to a platform,

INERTIAL NAVIGATION
US Pat. 3260485 – Filed Mar 21, 1962
Filed March 21, 1962 INERTIAL NAVIGATION 10 Sheets-Sheet 4 HAROLD LERMAN NEIL A.
SANCHIRICO JOHN P. SPUTZ INVENTOR.

LERMAN INTEGRATOR
US Pat. 3284620 – Filed Mar 21, 1962 – General Pre
It is well known that in inertial navigation and missile guidance, integrators
play a vital role. Thus, the displacement of a mass aboard a space vehicle or

GYRO COMPASS MISALIGNMENT MEASURING APPARATUS AND METHOD
US Pat. 3346966 – Filed Mar 28, 1962 – by mesne assignments
It is well known that inertial navigation is an advanced form of dead reckoning
in which the position, velocity, time and orientation of the object such as

SELF-CONTAINED GUIDANCE SYSTEM
US Pat. 3281094 – Filed Apr 16, 1962 – Trident Engineering Associates
Inertial navigation is based upon the measurement of acceleration. This
measurement is not directly applicable to the navigation problem which requires

HYBRID STRAPDOWN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3284617 – Filed May 15, 1962 – General Pre
HYBRID STRAPDOWN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM Filed May NAVIGATION £U-
TORQUER >6

LERMAN ETAL GYROCOMPASSING SYSTEM
US Pat. 3281581 – Filed Jun 27, 1962
A signal representing this initial heading angle is produced during the
alignment of the inertial navigation system prior to the start of the
maneuvering of

ANGULAR ACCELEROMETER
US Pat. 3151488 – Filed Jul 26, 1962
Background In the navigation of vehicles such as ships, aircraft, mis- 15 siles,
and the like, the concept of “inertial navigation” is becoming widely used.

NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3281582 – Filed Aug 9, 1962 – North American Aviation
In fast-flying aircraft, different types of navigation techniques have become
necessary. One of the most successful is the so-called “inertial navigation

ANALOG TO
US Pat. 3162052 – Filed Sep 6, 1962 – Honeywell Inc
These six inertial devices are so positioned that they form three pairs,
inertial navigation system. 10 It is a further object of this invention to

NAVIGATION SYSTEM UTILIZING ION PROBES
US Pat. 3276725 – Filed Sep 12, 1962 – The Boeing Company
Another object of the invention is to provide a navigation system utilizing ion
probes to be used singularly or with an inertial navigation

MANONI, JR
US Pat. 3305671 – Filed Sep 28, 1962 – United Aircraft Corporation
This invention relates to a manner of mecha- 30 nization in which the
information from the horizon sensor is used to damp the inertial navigation
loops.

WHITAKER
US Pat. 3350548 – Filed Sep 28, 1962 – United Aircraft Corporation
This invention relates to a manner of mechanization in which the information
from the horizon sensor is used to damp the inertial navigation loops.

STABILIZING SYSTEM FOR A GYROSCOPE
US Pat. 3306115 – Filed Nov 5, 1962
In detail it is proposed to provide a gyroscope used for inertial navigation,
comprising a spring connecting the two gimbals of the gyro suspension for

SYSTEM FOR BOUNDING THE RADIUS COORDI- NATE OF AN ORBITING VEHICLE
US Pat. 3305672 – Filed Dec 27, 1962 – United Aircraft Corporation
Utilizing a horizon scanner in conjunction with a stel- lar-inertial guidance
system in such a manner provides a navigation system in which the positional

SPACE VEHICLE NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3283572 – Filed Dec 31, 1962 – Gen
Inertial navigation is a form of dead (deduced) reckoning navigation, wherein
the extremely stable gyro platform established by the inertial navigation

HOFFMAN GYRO DRIFT LIMITING SYSTEM
US Pat. 3258977 – Filed Jan 4, 1963 – General Pre
The gyros in the navigation or guidance sys- 15 tern of a rocket are subjected
is to increase the accuracy of inertial guidance or navigation systems.

ALGEBRAIC- INTEGRATION INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3412239 – Filed Jan 22, 1963
235—150.25) This invention relates to inertial navigation computing systems and
particularly to those systems employing sensors which are “strapped down” to

ADAMS ETAL GYROSCOPE
US Pat. 3309931 – Filed Jun 26, 1963
It is known that in inertial navigation systems, the greatest uncertainties in
navigation of long-range vehicles from inertial guidance are due to drifts

STELLAR-INERTIAL PLATFORM SYSTEM
US Pat. 3491228 – Filed Jul 1, 1963 – United Air
All inertial navigation systems provide for the isolation of the accelerometers
from rotations of the vehicle. Gyroscopes are used for such isolation.

NON-CONSTRAINED PENDULOUS GYROSCOPE FOR INERTIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
US Pat. 3355953 – Filed Sep 20, 1963 – General Electric Company
It is particularly useful in pairs with appropriate computer apparatus to
provide precise position information in a bo.dy- bound inertial navigation
system.

DUAL SPEED RESET IHTECIRATOR
US Pat. 3463912 – Filed Sep 30, 1963 – Singer
In order to make use of digital reset integrators in an analog inertial
navigation system, means are required to make use of the digital output of the
reset

LERMAN CTAL
US Pat. 3480766 – Filed Sep 30, 1963
What is claimed is: 3. An inertial navigation system comprising a stable 1. An
analog inertial navigation system comprising a platform,

ALTIMETER SYSTEM
US Pat. 3242736 – Filed Oct 1, 1963
(Cl. 73—) This invention relates to inertial navigation and pertains, more
particularly, to instrumentation of the vertical channel.

VIBRA-ROTOR GYROSCOPES
US Pat. 3463016 – Filed Nov 15, 1963 – Litton Systems
An inertial navigation instrument comprising a rotating shaft, An inertial
navigation instrument as claimed in claim 75 14 6 in which said torsional

Topographical mapping radar
US Pat. 4359732 – Filed Nov 21, 1963 – Goodyear Aerospace Corporation
platform with respect to some datum, an accurate, highly refined inertial

SCHLITT INERTIAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM
US Pat. 3404571 – Filed Dec 20, 1963 – Bell Aerospace Corporation Filed Dec
In an inertial navigation system, a control gyro having a rotor and mounted for
two 5 degrees of freedom about orthogonal axes perpendicular to the spin

EXTREMELY SENSITIVE PENDULOUS ACCELEROMETER
US Pat. 3391579 – Filed Jan 15, 1964 – Litton Systems
A principal application of accelerometers is in inertial and celestial
navigation systems of airborne and space vehicles. In such systems
accelerometers are

NONINERTIAL STRAPPED DOWN GRAVITY GRADIENT NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3545266 – Filed Feb 17, 1964 –
11 is a schematic block diagram of an inertial surveying-navigation system
utilizing signals supplied by the surveying instrument.

VEHICLE FRAME
US Pat. 3426592 – Filed Apr 6, 1964
This invention relates generally to inertial navigation systems and particularly
to an improved inertial reference unit for use in

MATHEY INBRTIAL TACHOMETERS
US Pat. 3302465 – Filed Apr 13, 1964 – CSFXCom
Some velocity measuring devices, used in inertial navigation, have as their main
component a tuning fork 15 mounted on a rod. This tuning fork is submitted

OPTICAL-INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3370460 – Filed Jun 16, 1964
27, HB HAAKE ET AL 3370460 ll: OPTICAL- INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM Filed June, 3
Sheets-Sheet 20 B (COMP(/T£S: /=>/?

LONGITUDINAL LINES DEFINING POLE
US Pat. 3310873 – Filed Aug 5, 1964 – Gen
(Cl. 33—1) The present invention relates to inertial navigation, and more
particularly to an attitude or orientation identification for an inertial

ELECTRONIC VISUAL CUE INDICATOR SYSTEM FOR AIRCRAFT
US Pat. 3309659 – Filed Sep 17, 1964 – the United States of America as represented by the Secre
The inertial navigation system used may be one of the many systems known in the
art for the purpose described and may be, for example, the US AN/ASN-31

BEARING PRETREAT PROCESS
US Pat. 3507677 – Filed Oct 19, 1964 – Massachusetts Institute torque generate noncorrectable errors in the control of Technology
Almost all inertial navigation and ings in general, and the particular need for
improved high- guidance systems employ a stable platform.

BEARING PRE-RUN PROCESS
US Pat. 3251117 – Filed Oct 20, 1964
Of the available types of navigation and guidance systems, inertial Almost
all inertial navigation and guidance systems employ a stable platform.

DEVICE FOR INDICATING THE ANGULAR VELOCITY OF A SYSTEM
US Pat. 3379862 – Filed Oct 28, 1964 – North to a di ital computer it is consequently necessary to de
92) ,0 device is for example included in an inertial navigation system and
shaped as a Schuler-tuned pendulum, in which “” case the voltage after

CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION
US Pat. 3442140 – Filed Dec 24, 1964 – North American Rockwell Corporation Filed Dec
OF AN INERTIAL NAVIGATION PLATFORM Filed Dec. ‘^4, Sheet ._/_.. of 2 36
SHAFT ANGLE 9 ji E3 = Ej cos 9 + Ey sin 6 E* s -E, sin 0 + Eo cos 9 INVENTOR.

SCHLITT INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
US Pat. 3359805 – Filed Feb 10, 1965 – Bell Aerospace Corporation

GYRO MONITOR ADAPTIVE MECHANIZATION
US Pat. 3352164 – Filed Feb 23, 1965 – North American Aviation
In long-term inertial navigationnavigation for periods in excess of several
hours — the dominant error sources are the gyro loop uncompensated drift

METHOD FOR NAVIGATING A SPACE VEHICLE
US Pat. 3439427 – Filed Mar 17, 1965 – North h th h
Instead of mounting the star tracker to the vehicle, it may be mounted to an
inertial navigation platform which in turn would be mounted to the vehicle.

PULSED INTEGRATING PENDULUM ACCELEROMETER
US Pat. 3408873 – Filed Mar 29, 1965 – by mesne as
Thus it is apparent that the accelerometer is the basic 30 measuring element in
an inertial navigation and guidance system. Prior art accelerometers usually

AUTOMATIC GUIDANCE AND LANDING SYSTEM FO R AIRCRAFT
US Pat. 3345017 – Filed Apr 12, 1965 – Elliott Brothers
time lag in detecting external disturbances by using ILS information to
monitor and to introduce corrections to, an inertial navigation system.

DOZIER, JR NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3391568 – Filed May 10, 1965 – North American Rockwell Corporation
73—1) ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE An inertial navigation system with means for
determining when drift errors occur. The device employs two identical stable

MAN-CARRIED AUTO-NAVIGATION DEVICE
US Pat. 3355942 – Filed May 14, 1965 – Martin
The inertial navigation arrangement uses a variation of the gas-lubricated,
double integrating accelerometer (distance meter) disclosed by RO Stouffer in

LEVY LOW-LEVEL FLIGHT SYSTEM
US Pat. 3373423 – Filed May 26, 1965 – General Precision Systems Inc
A low-level flight system for use within an aircraft having an inertial
navigation computer, comprising, in combination: a data storage device for
carrying

Synchronous detector with pulse repetition frequency modulation
US Pat. 3952302 – Filed Jun 21, 1965 – Hughes Aircraft Company
2 and 3. sation loop which measures the error between the fre- Inertial
navigation systems are well known in the art as quency/i and the corresponding

MAINLOBE DOPPLER CLUTTER RETURN COMPENSATOR FOR MOVING PLATFORM RADAR
US Pat. 3346859 – Filed Jun 21, 1965
Inertial navigation systems are well known in the art as described in chapter 3
of “Principles of Inertial Navigation,” by CF Savant, Jr., RC Howard,

METHOD FOR ALIGNING A NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3545092 – Filed Jul 1, 1965 – North American Rockwell Corporation
The human factor problem in aligning an inertial platform in azimuth is
virtually an inertial navigation platform is self- (a) maintaining said
platform

OPTICAL MONITOR MECHANIZATION FOR MINIMIZING GUIDANCE SYSTEM ERRORS
US Pat. 3483384 – Filed Jul 6, 1965 – North Int
The guidance computer 17 is comprised of two computer sections: the inertial
navigation computer 17a and the star tracker computer 176.

WILSON 3 MEANS FOR SETTING INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
US Pat. 3407643 – Filed Oct 12, 1965 – Elliott Brothers

Polaris guidance system
US Pat. 4470562 – Filed Oct 22, 1965 – The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
another object is to provide an inertial guidance an inertial guidance a
si le md ct inertial idance system for a an inertial navigation system for

Guidance computer
US Pat. 4405985 – Filed Oct 22, 1965 – The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
An all inertial navigation system avoids transmission of signals between ship
and missile. Alignment of the fire control system is accomplished prior to

JOO ATTITUDE READOUT DEVICE
US Pat. 3491453 – Filed Apr 25, 1966 – North American Rockwell Corporation
There presently exists in the state of the inertial art navigation systems which
utilize a spherical inertial platform supported inside of a spherical outer

APPARATUS FOR SENSING MOVEMENT ABOUT A PLURALITY OF AXES
US Pat. 3563662 – Filed Jun 13, 1966 – Sperry Rand Corporation
which provides navigation position signals such as latitude and longitude,
The acceleration signals 75 in the inertial navigation field that a

ACCELEHOMETER CALIBRATION METHOD
US Pat. 3470730 – Filed Nov 17, 1966
In acordance with the invention, an accelerometer of the type used in inertial
navigation systems may be accurately tested in flight under zero gravity or

LOW FRICTION BEARING AND SUPPORT ARRANGEMENT
US Pat. 3475063 – Filed Feb 13, 1967 – U
The accuracy of inertial navigation systems 25 depends upon the properties of
its platform instruments, for example gyroscopes, accelerometers,

INERTIAL SENSING SYSTEM FOR USE IN NAVIGATION AND GUIDANCE
US Pat. 3559478 – Filed Apr 5, 1967 – General Technical Services Inc
3 is illustrated in block diagram a system capable of inertial navigation or
guidance which includes the sensing system which is the object of my invention.

LOCAL VERTICAL CONTROL APPARATUS
US Pat. 3490281 – Filed Apr 28, 1967 – Honeywell Inc
to provide a local vertical inertial navigation platform having the combined
benefits of both local vertical orientation and specific electrostatically

APPARATUS FOR INDICATING ERRORS IN
US Pat. 3672229 – Filed Jul 13, 1967
FIELD OF THE INVENTION 1° Other objects and advantages of the present invention
will This invention relates to an inertial navigation or guidance be

DOFPLER-INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3430238 – Filed Jul 18, 1967
APPARATUS FOR PROVIDING AN ACCURATE VERTICAL REFERENCE IN A – DOFPLER-
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM Filed July, Sheet / of 2 20-H FUNCTION GE IL J66 FIG.

DOPPLER INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3432856 – Filed Jul 17, 1967
NAVIGATION SYSTEM. March, H. BUELL ETAL DOPPLER INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
Filed July,

APPARATUS FOR CALIBRATING DOPPLER-INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
US Pat. 3414899 – Filed Jul 18, 1967
Since the gyro’s spin have the common defect of poor accuracy in the cross- axis
is effectively rotated into alignment with the inertial over regjon

EARTH RATE
US Pat. 3430239 – Filed Jul 19, 1967
Summary of the invention In carrying out the invention in a preferred form
thereof, there is provided a Doppler-inertial navigation system including a

GYRO AXIS PERTURBATION TECHNIQUE FOR
US Pat. 3736791 – Filed Aug 18, 1967 – he United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
A method as set forth in claim 1, wherein the reference axis is the pitch axis
of the stable platform of a ship’s inertial navigation system and the gyro is

OA; CQA
US Pat. 3496781 – Filed Sep 25, 1967 –
or strapped-down inertial navigation COMPENSATION APPARATUS system( the
standard smgle-degree-of- freedom floated inertial reference integrating

AIRCRAFT INERTIAL DRIFT CORRECTION UY A GROUND STATION
US Pat. 3456255 – Filed Nov 21, 1967
A position-finding and guidance system for an aircraft employing an inertial
navigation system which comprises means in the aircraft for compensating and

PLATFORM FOR INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS OR THE LIKE
US Pat. 3512409 – Filed Dec 26, 1967 –
An inertial navigation system often comprises three gyroscopes and three
accelerometers, thus altogether six components which shall be mounted within the

DEAD RECKONING NAVIGATION POSITION
US Pat. 3588478 – Filed Sep 26, 1968
11, 1967 entitled “Control System for the radio navigation receiver means;
or counterclockwise direction to and economical inertial navigation system,

DISPLAY APPARATUS
US Pat. 3545269 – Filed Oct 14, 1968
Apparatus as set forth in claim 14 including an in- ertial navigation system
source is a magnetic heading output from said inertial navigation system,

Gravity measurement apparatus for ships
US Pat. 4295372 – Filed Dec 5, 1968 – The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
a ships inertial navigation system (SINS), in pulse form, is first counted
and scaled to provide an output related directly to the total acceleration.

AUTOMATIC PILOT FOR NAVIGABLE CRAFT
US Pat. 3635428 – Filed Jan 17, 1969
said means for providing a second damping signal comprises inertial
navigation means for continuously providing said instantaneous drift angle
signal.

CONTROL APPARATUS
US Pat. 3713335 – Filed Apr 1, 1969
While this approach led scaled output signals from the same inertial corn- to
1 an inertial component. . „._, , .. . , . . . In general, a navigation

ELECTRONIC CELESTIAL NAVIGATION MEANS
US Pat. 3769710 – Filed Apr 1, 1969 –
A lites would thus be capable of continuous navigation 25 computer is also
also properly South accelerometers of an inertial navigation system. orients

HYBRID NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3739383 – Filed Jun 5, 1969
Further, the recursion frequency of the in- a vehicle is combined with an
inertial navigation system 10 formation of radio position becomes small.

XX XX XX
US Pat. 3702477 – Filed Jun 23, 1969 – Iowa State University Research Foundation
Details of the Navy Navigation Satellite System The present invention uses
transmitted by in integrating inertial and satellite navigation systems. the

AUTOPILOT FOR SHIP
US Pat. 3665281 – Filed Oct 27, 1969 – Kabushiki Kaisha Tokyo Keiki Seizosho
autopilot and more par- 5 most desirable courses for the ship’s navigation,
…. calculations of inertial navigation such as struction or command signal

VOR-LOC VALID
US Pat. 3631476 – Filed Nov 10, 1969
only one sector may appear at a time navigation system electronic circuits,
such as an inertial navigation system VALID, and the NAV RECEIVER ON

GROUND MAPPING RADAR SYSTEM
US Pat. 3680086 – Filed Nov 26, 1969 – North American Rockwell Corporation
an inertial reference system and FIG. 1. In addition to the size,
further inertial navigation system 18. aggravating precision navigation or map

SHEET
US Pat. 3651691 – Filed Jan 5, 1970 –
TYPE INERTIAL REFERENCE DEVICES greatest at the null or neutral point.
in t to a ate inertial navigation com. tion for usage in precision control

PHASED ARRAY BEAM STEERING CONTROL WITH
US Pat. 3646558 – Filed Feb 20, 1970 – he United States of America as represented by the Secretary o
Roll, yaw and pitch signals are fed into the same arithmetic unit by an inertial
navigation system. The arithmetic unit, using the information from the

NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM EMPLOYING TIME
US Pat. 3643259 – Filed Feb 20, 1970 –
A navigation system as recited in claim 2 wherein said determining means
comprises an inertial navigation set.. A navigation system as recited in claim 3

GEOGRAPHIC POSITION LOCATOR
US Pat. 3636323 – Filed May 1, 1970
The inertial navigation computer means. navigation component or subsystem ij
»u from said navigation computer means, weapon is supposed to be used.

ENERGY SOURCE TRACKING SYSTEM
US Pat. 3699324 – Filed Sep 17, 1970
A navigation system comprising a receiver of energy from an energy radiating
source having known orbital parameters, a computer means, an inertial

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PERFORMANCE
US Pat. 3680355 – Filed Oct 7, 1970
A performance monitoring arrangement for a dual platform inertial navigation
system of the type wherein each inertial platform is stabilized by two,

MEANS FOR DETERMINING HEADING
US Pat. 3750456 – Filed Dec 30, 1970 – Collins Radio Company
7, [54] MEANS FOR DETERMINING HEADING ALIGNMENT IN AN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM
[75] Inventor: Ferman L. Walker, Cedar Rapids, Iowa [73] Assignee: Collins

INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
US Pat. 3790766 – Filed Mar 5, 1971 – Ferranti Limited
5, [54] INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS [75] Inventor: Kenneth Robson Brown,
Midlothian, Scotland [73] Assignee: Ferranti Limited, Hollinwood, Lancashire,

STAR TRACKER SYSTEM
US Pat. 3731544 – Filed Mar 31, 1971
Modern navigation systems, such as inertial and dop- vention, a two axis
gyroscope is fixed to the stellar sen- pier navigation systems, have a high
degree

ISO-PHASE NAVIGATION SYSTEM
US Pat. 3803610 – Filed May 26, 1971
such as computers or inertial navigation systems (neither of which is
such as from the com- 25 puter or inertial navigation system mentioned in FIG.

AUTOMATIC FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM USING
US Pat. 3773281 – Filed Jun 18, 1971
using inertial navigation system (INS) data. 0C – K 1/10 b + 1 laft + K ft J ,-
FIG. 4 is an embodiment of the device of the inven- (3) tion shown in FIG.

SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MONITORING THE PERFORMANCE OF A DUAL PLATFORM INERTIAL

TRUE WIND SPEED COMPUTER
US Pat. 3800128 – Filed Mar 14, 1972 – he United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
In FIG. synchro outputs of the ship’s log and gyro-compass or 2 of the drawings,
leads marked “S” indicate inputs to from an inertial navigation system.

INTEGRATED ALIGNMENT SYSTEM
US Pat. 3816935 – Filed Jun 19, 1972 – he Boeing Company
or Firm — Glenn Orlob [57] ABSTRACT Platform and method for aligning the
same for various aircraft orientation systems, such as inertial navigation,

APEX POINT
US Pat. 3866229 – Filed Sep 12, 1972 – separate pair of frequen
The inertial device 30 identifiable by the ground station. this
identification and performing the desired meas- vices employed for inertial
navigation.

Synthetic array radar command air launched missile system
US Pat. 4204210 – Filed Sep 15, 1972 – The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
Conventional doppler velocimeters are commonly used to damp the oscillations in
the Schuler tuned inertial navigation loop. Since the SBV processor is

Tactical nagivation and communication system
US Pat. 4232313 – Filed Sep 22, 1972 – The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
The Loran and Omega information, however, is generally of a lower order of
accuracy than ; the information available from the inertial navigation system.

Various Inertial Drives

Written By: admin - May• 19•10

Inertial drives, impulse engines, centrifugal & centripetal propulsion, momentum transfer, motion rectifiers, non-linear propulsion, translational force generators, gyroscopic propulsion, directional force generators, & reaction motors, &c: various names for “bootstrap” methods & apparatus that impart motion to a vehicle without reaction with the environment.

Read On!

USP# 6,345,789 (2-12-02): Method & Apparatus for Propulsion
Rasmusson, James K.



USP# 6,290,622 (7-18-01): Mechanical Force Generator

Murray, Lawrence D.



USP# 6,259,177 (7/10/01): Motion Imparting System

Deschamplain, David



USP# 6,098,924 (7/18/00): Method & Apparatus for Generating Propulsive Forces

Woodward, James F., et al.



USP# 6,089,511 (7/18/00): Method & Apparatus for Propulsion

Rasmusson, James K.



USP# 5,969,442 (10/19/99): Reaction Propulsion Motor & Apparatus for Using the Same

McKee, John M., et al.



USP# 5,966,986 (10/19/99): Propulsion System

Laul, Virgil R.



USP# 5,937,698 (8/17/99): Centrifugal Propulsion System

Kunz, William T.



USP# 5,890,400 (4/06/99): Apparatus for Generating a Propulsion Force

Oades, Ross A.



USP# 5,860,317 (1/19/99): Gyroscopic Propulsion System

Laithwaite, Eric R. & Dawson, Wm.



USP# 5,831,354 (11/03/98): Bootstrap Propulsion System

Stopplecamp, Timothy J.



USP# 5,791,188 (8/11/98): Propulsion System

Howard, George J.



USP# 5,782,134 (7/21/98): Electromagnetically Actuated Thrust Generator

Bouden, James D.



USP# 5,685,196 (11/11/97): Inertial Propulsion Plus Device & Engine

Foster, Richard E.:



USP# 5,673,872 (10/7/97): Apparatus for Energy Transformation & Conservation

Shimshi, Ezra:



USP# 5,557,988  (9/24/96): Centripetally Impelled Vehicle

Claxton, John C.



USP# 5,488,877 (2/6/96): Centrifugal Inertia Drive

Lieurance, Richard L.



USP# 5,473,957  (12/12/95): Steerable Translational Force, &c.

Navarro, Thomas L.



USP# 5,427,330 (6/27/95): Sphereroll

Shimshi, Ezra



USP# 5,410,198 (4/25/95): Propulsion System

Butka, Kemal



USP# 5,388,470 (2/14/95): Centrifugal Force Drive Machine

Marsh, Richard O., Jr.



USP# 5,388,469 (2/14/95): Rotating Eccentric Weights Vibrator System

Woltering, Howard M.



USP# 5,335,561 (8/9/94): Impulse Converter

Harvey, James



USP# 5,334,060 (8/2/94): Propulsion System

Butka, Kemal



USP# 5,313,851 (5/24/94): Reusable Mass Propulsion System

Hull, Harold L & Joslin, Donald E.



USP# 5,182,958 (2/2/93): Non-Linear Propulsion & Energy Conversion System

Black, James W.



USP# 5,167,163 (12/1/92): Energy Transfer Device

McMahon, John C.



USP# 5,156,058:  Converting Rotary Motion to Lineal Motion

Bristow, Theodore R., Jr.



USP# 5,150,626 (9/29/92): Translational Force Generator

Isaacson, J. D. & Navarro, T. L.



USP# 5,111,087  (5/5/92): Propulsion System

Butka, Kemal



USP# 5,090,260 (2/25/92): Gyrostat Propulsion System

Delroy, M. S.& Delroy M.



USP# 5,054,331 (10/8/91): Controllable Gyroscopic Propulsion Apparatus

Rodgers, A. T.



USP# 5,042,313  (8/27/91): Conversion of Rotational Output to Linear Force

Montalbano, Paul J.



USP# 5,024,112 (6/18/91): Gyroscopic Apparatus

Kidd, Alexander D.



USP# 4,991,453 (2/12/91):  Centripedal Device for Concentrating Centrifugal Force

Mason, Lyle M.



USP# 4,884,465 (12/5/89): Centripedal Device for Concentrating Centrifugal Force

Zachystal, George J.



USP# 4,856,358 (8/15/89):  Conversion of Rotational Output to Linear Force

Montalbano, Paul J.



USP# 4,801,111 (1/31/89):   System for Propulsion & Positioning

Rogers, Charles E.,  et al.



USP# 4,788,882 (12/6/88): Flywheel

Fulop, Charles



USP# 4,784,006 (11/15/88): Gyroscopic Propulsion Device

Kethley, Lancelot I.



USP# 4,770,063 (9/13/88): Universal Propulsion Powerplant & Impulse Drive Unit

Mundo, James D.



USP# 4,744,259 (5/17/88): Apparatus for Producing a Directional Unit Force

Peterson, Oscar F. A.



USP# 4,726,241 (2/23/88):  Continuous Force & Impact Generator

Melnick, Harry S.



USP# 4,712,439 (12/15/87): Apparatus for Producing a Force

North, Henry



USP# 4,674,583 (6/23/87): Impulse Drive

Peppiatt, Alvin C., et al.



USP# 4,631,971 (12/30/86): Apparatus for Developing a Propulsive Force

Thornson, Brandson R.



USP# 4,579,011 (3/1/86): Propulsion Apparatus

Dobos, Elmer M.



USP# 4,577,520 (3/25/86):  Mechanical Propulsion System

Colla, Joseph



USP# 4,479,396 (10/30/84): Propulsion System

de Weaver, Fred, III



USP# 4,409,856 (10/18/83): Propulsion System

de Weaver, Fred, III:



USP# 4,398,431 (8/16/83): Mechanical Power Transmitting System

Melnick, Harry S.



USP# 4,347,752 (9/7/82): Converting Rotary Motion to a Rectilinear Force

Dehen, Frederick L.



USP# 4,261,212 (4/14/81): Unidirectional Force Generator

Melnick, Harry S.



USP# 4,242,918 (1/6/81):  Mechanical Propulsion System

Srogi, Ladislaw G.



USP# 4,238,968 (12/16/80): Conversion of Centrifugal Force to Linear Force & Motion

Cook, Robert L.



USP# 4,095,460 (6/20/78): Converting Rotary Motion into Unidirectional Motion

Cuff, Calvin I.



USP# 4,087,064 (5/2/78): Orbital Propulsion Apparatus

Knap, George



USP# 3,998,107 (12/21/76): Converting Rotary Motion into a Unidirectional Linear Motion

Cuff, Calvin I.



USP# 3,979,961  (9/14/76): Propelling an Object by an Unbalanced Centrifugal Force…

Schnur, Nicholas J.



USP# 3,968,700 (7/13/76): Converting Rotary Motion into a Unidirectional Linear Motion

Cuff, Calvin I.



USP# 3,916,704  (11/4/75): Vibratory Motion

Gaberson, Howard A.



USP# 3,897,692 (8/5/75): Centrifugal Propulsion Drive & Steering Mechanism

Lehberger, Arthur N.



USP# 3,889,543 (6/17/75): Propulsion System

Mast, Oscar



USP# 3,863,510 (2/4/75): Inertia Engine

Benson, Everett H.



USP# 3,810,394  (5/14/74): Centrifugal Mechanical Device

Novak, Leo J.



USP# 3,807,244 (4/30/74): Device for Transforming Kinetic Energy

Estrade, Fernand



USP# 3,756,086 (9/4/73):  Propulsion System

McAlister, Roy E., et al.



USP# 3,750,484    (8/7/73): Centrifugal Thrust Motor

Benjamin, Paul M.



USP# 3,683,707   (8/15/72): Propulsion System

Cook, Robert L.



USP# 3,653,269   (4/4/72):  Converting Rotary Motion into Unidirectional Motion

Foster, Richard E.



USP# 3,584,515   (6/15/71): Propulsion Apparatus

Matyas, Laszlo B.



USP# 3,555,915   (1/19/71): Directional Force Generator

Young, Hersey W., Jr.



USP# 3,530,617    (9/29/70): Vibration Driven Vehicle

Halvorson, Earle M., et al.



USP# 3,495,791  (2/17/70): Effecting Electro-Mechanical Energy  Interchange…

Drell, Sidney D., et al.



USP# 3,492,881  (2/3/70): Prime Mover

Auweele, Albert J. v.



USP# 3,404,854   (10/8/68): Apparatus for Imparting Motion to a Body

di Bella, Alfio



USP# 3,266,233   (8/16/66): Inertia Propulsion Device

Farrall, Arthur W.



USP# 3,238,714   (3/8/66): Thrust Motor

Schur, George O.



USP# 3,203,644   (8/31/65): Gyroscopic Inertial Space Drive

Kellogg, H. Dudley



USP# 3,196,580   (7/27/65): Toy Vehicle Having… Self-Contained Drive Means

Rakestraw, Robert G.



USP# 3,182,517   (5/11/65): Variable Oscillation System

Dean, Norman L.



USP# 3,177,660 (4/13/65): Propulsion Apparatus

Haller, Paul



USP# 2,886,976   (5/19/59): System for Converting Rotary Motion into Unidirectional Motion

Dean, Norman L.



USP# 2,636,340   (4/28/53): Direct Push Propulsion Unit

Llamozas, Juan D. M.



USP# 2,639,777    (5/26/53): Method & Device for Imparting Lateral Movement

Dull, Marshall L.



USP# 2,350,248   (5/30/44): Device for Obtaining Directional Force from Rotary Motion

Nowlin, Aubrey C.



USP# 2,088,115   (7/27/37): Reaction Motor

Neff, Tom



USP# 2,009,780   (7/30/35): Centrifugal Variable Thrust Mechanism

Laskowitz, Isidor B.



USP# 1,953,964   (4/10/34): Centrifugal Variable Thrust Mechanism

Laskowitz, Isidor B.



USP# 1,511,960 (10/14/24): Propulsion of Vehicles

Goldschmidt, Rudolf

The New Science- Wilbert B. Smith

Written By: admin - May• 19•10

Wibert Brockhouse Smith was born at Lethbridge, in the Province of Alberta, Canada on the 17th of February, 1910. He exhibited early in life an eager interest in the nature of things. At the age of 15, he wrote a treatise dealing with the controversial concept of perpetual motion. He was also the author of several scientific novels. After having obtained his S. SC. And M. Sc. Degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Columbia in 1933 and 1934, he spent four years on the staff of radio station CJOR in Vancouver, BC, where he became chief engineer.

THE NEW SCIENCE attempts to provide a fundamental understanding of reality in general, and of our known universe in particular. It advances a unified concept governing our awareness of reality, explains the generation of this reality, and describes the factors which mold it into the numerous forms in which we find it. To some extent it is not a “first” attempt. For centuries philosophers and scientists have, with varying degrees of success, framed hypotheses with the same considered objective. It may be said that such attempts at a unified understanding of the universe is a natural result of man’s inquisitiveness and his searching need of the ultimate order. THE NEW SCIENCE is unique, however, in bringing into play not only those factors which are usually considered as physical and material, but also the more subtle yet no less important influence of the mental and spiritual.

Read more here:

Gravity Nullified – Science and Invention (September 1927)

Written By: admin - May• 19•10


rexresearch.com



KOWSKY & FROST
Gravity Nullification

 




PDF : Scan of original article & commentaries ( P.A.C.E.  Newsletter & Cox : Antigravity Handbook )


Science and Invention (September 1927)Gravity Nullified

Quartz Crystals Charged by High frequency Currents Lose Their Weight

 

Although some remarkable achievements have been made with shortwave low power transmitters, radio experts and amateurs have recently decided that shortwave transmission had reached its ultimate and hat no vital improvement would be made in this line. A short time ago, however, two young European experimenters working with ultra-short waves, have made a discovery that promises to be of primary importance to the scientific world.

The discovery was made about six weeks ago in a newly established central laboratory of the Neuuartadline-Werke in Darreskein, Poland, by Dr Kowsky and Engineer Frost. While experimenting with the constants of very short waves, carried on by means of quartz resonators, a piece of quartz which was used, showed a clearly altered appearance. It was easily seen that in the center of the crystal, especially when a constant temperature not exceeding 10 C / 50 F was maintained, milky cloudiness appeared which gradually developed to complete opacity. The experiments of Dr Meissner, of the Telefunken Co,, along similar lines, according to which quartz crystals, subjected to high frequency currents clearly showed air currents which ld to the construction of  little motor based on this principle.  A week of eager experimenting finally led Dr Kowsky and Engineer Frost to the explanation of the phenomenon, and further experiments showed the unexpected possibilities for technical uses of the discovery.

Some statements must precede the explanation. It is known at last in part, that quartz and some other crystals of similar atomic nature have the property when exposed to potential excitation in a definite direction, of stretching and contracting; and if one uses rapidly changing potentials, the crystals will change the electric waves into mechanical oscillations. This piezo-electric effect, shown in Rochelle salt crystals by which they may be made into sound-producing devices such as loud-speakers, or reversely into microphones, also show the results in this direction. This effect was clearly explained in August 1925 Radio News and December 1919 Electrical Experimenter. These oscillations are extremely small, but have nevertheless their technical use in a quartz crystal wave meter and in maintaining a constant wavelength in radio transmitters. By a special arrangement of the excitation of the crystal in various directions, it may be made to stretch or increase in length and will not return to its original size. It seems as if a dispersal of electrons from a molecule resulted which, as it is irreversible, changes the entire structure of the crystal so that it cannot be restored to its former condition.

The stretching out, as we may term this strange property of the crystal, explains the impairment of its transparency. At the same time a change takes place in its specific gravity. Testing it on the balance showed that after connecting the crystal to the high tension current, the arm of the balance on which the crystal with the electrical connections rests, rose into the air. The illustration, Fig. 3, shows this experiment.

This pointed the way for further investigation and the determination of how far the reduction of the specific gravity could be carried out. B the use of greater power, finally to the extent of several kilowatts and longer exposure to the action, it was found eventually that from a little crystal, 5 by 2 by 1.5 millimeters. A non-transparent white body measuring about 10 centimeters on the side resulted, or increased about 20 times in length on any side (See Fig. 4). The transformed crystal was so light that it carried the whole apparatus with itself upwards, along with the weight of 25 kilograms (55 lb) suspended from it and floating free in the air. On exact measurement and calculation, which on account of the excellent apparatus in the Darredein laboratory could be readily carried out, it was found that the specific gravity was reduced to a greater amount than the change in volume would indicate. Its weight had become practically negative.

There can be no doubt that a beginning has been made toward overcoming gravitation. It is to be noted, however, that the law of conservation of energy is absolutely unchanged. The energy employed in treating the crystal, appears as the counter effect of gravitation. Thus the riddle of gravitation is not fully solved as yet, and the progress of experiments will be followed further. It is, however, the first time that experimentation with gravitation which hitherto has been beyond the pale of all such research, has become possible, and it seems as if there were a way discovered at last to explain the inter-relations of gravity with electric and magnetic forces, which connection, long sought for, has never been demonstrated. This report appears in a reliable German journal, Radio Umschau.